Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Please use Citations from the book. No outside sources – All instructions from the the DOC book link: ?https://u1lib.org/book/11043760 | EssayAbode

Please use Citations from the book. No outside sources – All instructions from the the DOC book link: ?https://u1lib.org/book/11043760

– Please use Citations from the book. No outside sources

– All instructions from the the DOC

book link:  https://u1lib.org/book/11043760/16ebe5  

Due May 15th

Book Link: https://u1lib.org/book/11043760/16ebe5 

Paper Review Sheet

The essay will not be cumulative; it will only cover material from after Midterm 2.

The final exam will cover the following 4 topics:

1. The Presidency

2. Congress

3. Public Opinion

4. Political Participation

There will be 3 parts of the essay (60 points total):

1. Part A: Identification Questions (Choose 4 out of 6; 5 points each; 20 points total)

Word Limit: 100 words max for Each ID Question (about 5 sentences max)

-Define the term, concept, or case and provide its significance. Same format as the midterm exams.

2. Part B: Short Answer Question (20 points)

Word Limit: 400 words max (about 3/4th page to 1 page max single spaced)

3. Part C: Short Answer Question (20 points)

Word Limit: 400 words max (about 3/4th page to 1 page max double spaced)

Please read questions carefully and answer every part of the prompt

Detailed Outline

Topics Covered Since Midterm 2:

1. The Presidency

2. Congress

3. Public Opinion

4. Political Participation

I. The Presidency

A. Important Powers

1. Commander in Chief

2. Appoint federal judges (including Supreme Court Justices)

-Confirmed by Senate

3. Veto legislation of Congress

4. Treaties

-Ratified by two-thirds of Senate

5. Pardon

B. The Electoral College

C. The Three Major Roles of the President

1. The President as Commander in Chief and Head of State

2. The President as Chief Executive

3. The President as Legislator

D. The President as Commander in Chief and Head of State

1. Commander in Chief

a. War Powers Resolution

2. Head of State

1. The President’s Explicit Foreign Relations Powers

a. Commander in Chief

b. Appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls

c. Treaties

2. The President’s Implicit Foreign Relations Powers

Curtiss-Wright case: The “President alone” is the “sole organ” in foreign affairs.

3. Senate’s Power over Treaty Ratification

-Executive Agreements

E. The President as Chief Executive

1. Authority through Delegation

a. Two Requirements for Delegation to Be Constitutional

1) Congress should lay out “clear standards” for how the law should be applied.

2) The President or executive agency should not have “unfettered discretion.”

2. Executive Orders

-Problems with executive orders

F. The President as Legislator

1. Veto

2. Line-Item Vetoes Unconstitutional

3. Signing Statements Constitutional

4. Veto Threat

II. Congress

A. Congress’s Structure (Bicameralism)

1. House of Representatives

-435 members; elected every two years; based on population of State.

2. Senate

-100 Senators; 2 Senators per State regardless of population.

-Elected every 6 years; elections staggered: only one-third of Senators reelected every 2 years

B. Key Enumerated Powers

1. Commerce Clause

2. Tax and Spend

3. Coin money

4. Declare War

5. Immigration

6. Elastic Clause (Necessary and proper clause)

C. Congress’s Foreign Affairs Power

1. Power to Declare War

2. Conflict with President’s Power as Commander in Chief

3. War Powers Resolution

D. Special Powers of the Senate

1. Treaties

-Requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senate

2. President’s appointment of Cabinet officials, ambassadors, and other public Ministers and

consuls.

-Requires Senate confirmation

3. Federal judges (including Supreme Court Justices)

-Requires Senate confirmation

E. Origination Clause

-All tax bills must start in the House of Representatives.

F. Gerrymandering

1. Definition

2. Packing and Cracking

3. Reynolds v. Sims: “One person, one vote.”

4. Supreme Court’s current Rule of Law on gerrymandering: partisan gerrymandering is

constitutional; however, racial gerrymandering is unconstitutional.

5. Effects of Gerrymandering

a. Increased Partisanship

b. Incumbency Advantage

G. Important Positions in the House of Representatives

1. Speaker of the House

2. House Minority Leader

3. Majority Whip

4. Minority Whip

H. Important Positions in the Senate

1. Senate Majority Leader

2. Senate Minority Leader

3. Whips

I. Congressional Committees

1. Standing Committees

2. Select or Special Committees

3. Joint Committees

-Conference Committee

J. How a Bill Becomes a Law

III. Public Opinion

A. Basic Definitions

1. Definition of Public Opinion

2. Margin of Error

3. Attitudes

4. Political Ideologies

B. Two Groups with Consistent Opinions

1. Ideologues

2. High Political Knowledge

C. Five Main Political Cues

1. Political Socialization

2. Partisanship

3. Group Membership

4. Retrospective Voting

5. Elites

D. Political Socialization

1. Definition

2. Main Source

3. Other important sources

E. Group Membership

1. Definition of Group-centric opinion formation

2. Group membership examples

F. Retrospective Voting

1. Definition

2. Main basis: Based on performance of incumbent president’s last 6 to 9 months before election.

-Usually based on economic performance (i.e. unemployment rate; inflation), but can also be

based on other important measures of performance (i.e. Coronavirus; wartime).

G. Elite Cues

1. Two types of elites

a. Media

b. Political leaders

2. Two primary mechanisms that elites use to affect public opinion

a. Priming

b. Framing

H. Two Reasons for Stability of Public Opinion

1. Measurement error

2. Opinion leaders

I. Measurement Error

1. Definition

2. How it contributes to stability of public opinion

J. Opinion leaders

1. Definition

2. How they contribute to stability of public opinion

V. Political Participation

A. Political Participation

1. Definition

2. Modes of Political Participation

B. Civic Voluntarism Model

1. Definition

2. 3 Reasons that People Politically Participate

a. Resources

b. Engagement

c. Recruitment

3. Resources: Main Resources Relevant to Political Participation

a. Time

b. Money

c. Civic Skills

i. Definition of civic skills

ii. 3 venues where people can develop civic skills

1) Religious organizations

2) Voluntary associations (i.e. unions, book clubs, etc.)

3) Workplace

iii. Acquirable civic skills

iv. How civic skills transfer to political participation

4. Engagement

a. Definition

b. Factors that affect political engagement

5. Recruitment

a. Definition

b. Example

1

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