12 May ?Like minds think alike? is an adage describing how people with similar values and beliefs may respond in a similar fashion in each ci
“Like minds think alike” is an adage describing how people with similar values and beliefs may respond in a similar fashion in each circumstance. In a positive way, individuals with similar backgrounds and interests tend to be attracted to each other more than individuals with dissimilar backgrounds and interests. However, there is also a negative side to this. There are several social sources of prejudice such as social dominance orientation, ethnocentric behavior, and authoritarian personalities.
- Describe the basis behind prejudice and discrimination. Explain ways in which these issues can be reduced? Explain how the common reasons for forming relationships can sometimes become negative aspects of prejudice and discrimination.
- Describe each of the social sources of prejudice thinking. Support your answer with relevant examples. Explain which of the three sources you consider to be the most effective in breeding prejudices.
Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your text and course readings. Comment on the postings of at least two peers and provide an analysis of each peer’s postings while also suggesting specific additions or clarifications for improving the discussion question response.
To support your work, make sure to utilize your course and text readings. When asked, utilize outside sources. As in all assignments make sure to cite your sources in your work and provide a reference for that citation utilizing APA format.
- Respond to at least two posts by the end of the week
When we think of stereotypes, we think of certain behavioral patterns for an individual based on specific characteristics common to the individual’s race, ethnicity, age, body structure, or career title. The problem arises when individuals:
- Stereotype others without having complete information.
- Interact with others based on generalized characteristics rather than actual individual traits.
One area where stereotypes are present is the care and treatment of individuals diagnosed with mental illness.
Behavioral health professionals use a system of diagnostic criteria to establish a diagnosis for those displaying a set of symptoms common for that diagnosis. The system of diagnostic criteria has an established set of symptom aids for different illnesses or disorders to ensure consistent care and treatment of individuals. However, the system is not foolproof; it can act as a label producing an inaccurate and unrealistic stereotype of individuals undergoing treatment. For instance, the system once considered the analysis of a person’s intelligence an essential criterion for establishing a diagnosis of intellectual disability (mental retardation). However, this criterion was not accurate, as some intelligence tests use mental age as the tool to compare the intelligence of those tested to their comparable-age counterparts without intellectual deficits. For instance, an individual with a chronological age of 30 years may have a mental age of 10 years, leading to the misconception that individuals with intellectual disability are like children, which is not true.
Scholl and Sabat (2008) did an extensive literature review on issues related to defining a stereotype for individuals with Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurological disorder. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, a debilitating illness causing memory loss and subsequent overall adaptive functioning loss. Scholl and Sabat concluded that individuals with Alzheimer's disease are "extremely vulnerable to the debilitating effects of negative self-stereotyping and stereotype threat" (p. 122).
Scholl, J., & Sabat, S. (2008). Stereotypes, stereotype threat, and ageing: Implications for the understanding and treatment of people with Alzheimer's disease. Ageing and Society, 28, 103–130.
Prejudice and Discrimination.html
Prejudice and Discrimination
Steel and Aronson (1995, as cited in Scholl and Sabat, 2008) proposed a theory of stereotype threat that suggested, "The mere awareness of the existence of a stereotype pertaining to a group with which one identifies can have a negative effect on the group's subsequent performances" (p. 114). The theory also indicated that being stereotyped into a particular group may have a negative effect on people's beliefs and attitudes about themselves and others. In addition, overgeneralized and negative-outcome stereotypes (not taking into account an individual's abilities and characteristics) are considered discrimination.
Let's discuss the social identity theory to understand how individuals relate stereotypes to prejudice and discrimination.
View the PDF transcript for Social Identity Theory:Prejudice and Discrimination
Page 1 of 1 PSY3011_Social Psychology Lab
© 2009 South University
Social Identity Theory: Prejudice and Discrimination Social identity theory was originally developed to understand the psychological basis behind intergroup discrimination. How is social identity theory related to determining stereotypes? Social identity theory provides a framework for understanding how individuals establish part of their concept of self by identifying with their cultural traditions. An individual’s concept of self is shaped by the individual’s life experiences, including interactions with family, friends, and coworkers, as well as other social interactions. For example, an individual’s self-concept may include identifying with a particular race, religion, career, and social activity (Myers, 2008). What does social identity theory focus on? Social identity theory helps explain that an individual's self-concept (attitudes, beliefs, and prejudices) is shaped through group identification. In addition, an individual’s social identity is established by favorably comparing the individual’s in-group (those the individual identifies with) with an out-group (those the individual doesn’t identify with). This theory concludes that individuals identify themselves with the groups they associate with and actively differentiate themselves from the groups they don't identify with. How is social identity theory related to coping with a negative social identity? Shinnar (2008) interviewed 17 Mexican immigrants living in Las Vegas. Shinnar used a face-to-face, semistructured interview method (a lead question with unscripted follow-up questions). He concluded that the majority of those interviewed reported a negative social identity and the motivation to maintain a positive self-concept created a need to cope. Identifying and analyzing the participants’ responses helped Shinnar understand that the coping mechanism for a negative social identity involves reflecting stereotypes and prejudices onto out-groups. The results of the study implied that the perpetuation of prejudice and discrimination will continue if they are used as the means of differentiating (negatively) between an individual's in-group and out-group.
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Sonia Zambiasi-Vines posted May 11, 2022 6:10 PM
Prejudice comes about when we feel a certain way about a particular group, and the people within it. Myers & Twenge describe it as ‘a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members’ (2018, p. 238). If you are prejudice, it may mean that you do not like a person or group that has a different belief, behavior, or appearance than yourself – you may even think that they are not as clever as you are, or that they are in some way dangerous or scary. And whilst prejudice is about our attitude, discrimination is the behavior that can come about because of that attitude. Usually, people discriminate because they are prejudice against someone (Myers & Twenge, 2018). For example, an employer may have a pre-conceived idea that a female cannot do the job, and then demonstrate discrimination by only hiring men. These issues could be reduced by educating people to change the way they think of others, and highlighting what is the same between them, rather than pointing out differences. Also, laws and policies which ban discriminatory behavior, and reward treating people equally, help reduce the problem.
The common reasons for forming relationships can sometimes become negative aspects of prejudice and discrimination because these common reasons include similarity, appearance, and reciprocal attraction – this means that we tend to flock together we people who look like us, and are like us. This then, in turn, can breed prejudice because we are in groups that are not mixed, and so the groups becomes distinctly different, and prejudices develop as like-minded people begin to think of other groups in the same way, and then support each other with the same prejudicial attitudes.
The social sources of prejudicial thinking include:
1. Socioeconomic status: for example, a person who is wealthy may be prejudice against a poor person, believing them to be lazy, unambitious, and stupid
2. Generational: a parent may express prejudicial beliefs onto his/her child
3. Social institutions: the government, school, the media and so on might either explicitly or passively support prejudicial ideas.
The source that I consider to be the most effective in breeding prejudices is in the media. Prejudices are learned, not inherent. As a parent, I have done my best to raise my children no have prejudices, yet they learn them via movies, television, and social media. Parenting is also very important; what we teach our children in their formative years can remain with them for life – so as parents and guardians, we have a responsibility to not pass down prejudices we have, and to educate our children on what is right.
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Amanda Simpson posted May 6, 2022 11:40 AM
• Describe the basis behind prejudice and discrimination. Explain ways in which these issues can be reduced? Explain how the common reasons for forming relationships can sometimes become negative aspects of prejudice and discrimination.
Social psychologists define prejudice as the lack of knowledge, information, ignorance, and stereotyping. Prejudice leads to discrimination. Social Discrimination is the differential treatment of a person based on their social class, cultural background, education, etc. Prejudice is unconscious and automatic, while discrimination is both conscious and unconscious. Prejudices are the preconceived attitudes, positive or negative, about a given group or individual. Social discrimination is a particular form of discrimination in which social behavior toward or against a person or group is based on social perceptions of their characteristics. Prejudices include three components, 1. The effective (ranging from discomfort to hate), 2. Cognitive ( assumptions and beliefs including stereotypes), 3. Behavioral (includes discrimination). We often see prejudices based on characteristics like race, sex, religion, culture, and more in society. Prejudice is often confused for discrimination or forms of oppression such as racism and sexism. While discrimination and oppression characterize behavior by powerful groups directed toward the less powerful, anyone can be prejudiced. Prejudice is an attitude that can trigger abusive actions. Most sociologists define discrimination as an action or a group of actions. So while the two concepts are linked, they are not the same. Prejudice does not automatically cause discrimination, but is almost always a influence. Prejudices have a significant effect on our external relationships. If someone holds strong prejudices, they will avoid having certain friends altogether. For example, they may choose to only associate with people of the same race as them or avoid having gay friends. (Meyers, 2018).
• Describe each of the social sources of prejudice thinking. Support your answer with relevant examples. Explain which of the three sources you consider to be the most effective in breeding prejudices.
Unequal Status, Masters view slaves as lazy, irresponsible, lacking ambition—as having those traits that justify slavery. Once these inequalities exist, prejudice helps justify the economic and social superiority of those who have wealth and power. People view enemies as subhuman and depersonalize them with labels. (Meyers, 2018).
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy negative beliefs predict negative behavior (or problems in life). If a person thinks we are clever or stupid or whatever, they will treat us that way. If we are treated as if we are clever, stupid or whatever, we will act, and even become, this way. The person has thus had their prophecy about us fulfilled. This is also known as the Pygmalion Effect(Meyers, 2018).
Stereotype Threat a self-conforming apprehension that one will assessed based on a negative stereotype. refers to being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group. Black college first-year students and sophomores performed more poorly on standardized tests than White students when their race was emphasized. When race was not emphasized, however, Black students performed better and equivalently with White students. The results showed that performance in. (Meyers, 2018).
Social Identity Self-concept—our sense of who we are—contains not just personal identity (our sense of personal attributes and attitudes) but also a social identity (Meyers, 2018).
Ingroup Bias The group definition of who you are—your race, religion, gender, academic major—implies a definition of who you are not. The circle that includes “us” (the ingroup) excludes “them” (the outgroup)Thus, a mere experience of being formed into groups may promote ingroup bias. Due to human quest for a positive self-concept, (Meyers, 2018).
Conformity If prejudice is socially accepted, many people will follow the path of least resistance and conform to fashion. They will act not so much out of a need to hate as out of a need to be liked and accepted.
The three that are most effective in breeding prejudices are unequal status, ( prejudice helps justify the economic and social superiority of those who have wealth and power ) stereotype threat ( academic contexts can be harmed by the awareness that one’s behavior might be viewed through the lens of racial stereotypes), and conformity (If prejudice is socially accepted, many people will follow the path of least resistance and conform to fashion) .