Chat with us, powered by LiveChat In this assessment, you should prepare a poster presentation (1500 words, A1 size). The presentation should identify TWO key leadership and managemen | EssayAbode

In this assessment, you should prepare a poster presentation (1500 words, A1 size). The presentation should identify TWO key leadership and managemen

  

In this assessment, you should prepare a poster presentation (1500 words, A1 size). The presentation should identify TWO key leadership and management challenges that you have experienced within your organisation or using a case study organisation.

The poster should consider why these are key issues and how they impact on the organisation. You should also consider if the organisation could have avoided these issues and/or if they could have been managed differently (for example during Covid-19)

For guidance some areas that you could consider are: 

a. Leading and Managing virtual teams

b. Motivating Employees during time of unprecedented change

c. Employee Wellbeing

d. Ensuring employee productivity and performance

e. Managing Conflicts and Negotiations

f. Ensuring employee readiness (Training and Development) 

g. Managing change

  

This list is not conclusive, you should only select TWO area that you would like to focus on. 

You should link most recent theories related to the chosen areas of challenges and on leadership and management to support your arguments and to make your work compatible with the level 7 expectations. 

  

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this assessment, you will be able to:

c. Recognise, analyse and respond to the Inter-relationship of associated topics in HRM and Organisational Behaviour 

d. Evaluate a range of options to select and justify the most appropriate opition considering contextual and organisational dimentions 

e. Autonomously initiate and communicate complex concepts through an appropriate format

Produced by Library and Learning Services 7th Edition, 2021

Harvard Referencing Guide

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Table of Contents Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 What is referencing? …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

When do you need to reference? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

When is a reference not needed? ……………………………………………………………………………. 6

Citing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Referring to sources within your work (citing)…………………………………………………………. 7 Citing a short quotation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Citing a long quotation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote…………………………………………………………………… 8

Making changes to quotations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Omitting part of a quotation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. ………………………………………………. 8

Pointing out an error ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Adding your own emphasis……………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Citing more than one source ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Citing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………………….. 9

Citing sources by same author in same year ……………………………………………………………… 9

Citing sources by different authors with the same surname in the same year …………………..10

Citing a corporate author ………………………………………………………………………………………10 How do I cite a source with missing publication details? ……………………………………………..10

Citing a source without a given author………………………………………………………………….10

Citing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………………….10

Updated versions…………………………………………………………………………………………………11

Abbreviating organisation names ……………………………………………………………………………11 Citing a source used within another source: secondary referencing ……………………………….11

Citing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………………12

Compiling your reference list …………………………………………………………………………………12

References list or bibliography? …………………………………………………………………………..12 Elements of a reference…………………………………………………………………………………………13

Publication information in the frontmatter of a book ………………………………………………….13

Title page………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

Reverse title page……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

How do I reference if publication details are missing? …………………………………………………14 Referencing a source without a given author………………………………………………………….14

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Referencing a source without a given date …………………………………………………………….14

Referencing a source used within a source: secondary referencing ………………………………..15

Referencing a source with more than one author ……………………………………………………….15 Referencing sources by the same author in the same year……………………………………………15

Referencing confidential material ……………………………………………………………………………15

What is a DOI?…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Referencing a source not listed in this guide……………………………………………………………..16 Example essay extract with citations and references list……………………………………………….16

Example reference formats for different source types………………………………………………….17

A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Act of Parliament………………………………………………………………………………………………18

App (Mobile) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………18 Archive material ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Artwork (in a gallery, museum, repository, collection or in a locality, body art or graffiti) ..19

Artwork (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………….19

Art installation/exhibition …………………………………………………………………………………..20 B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

Blog ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21

Book (translation) ……………………………………………………………………………………………..21

Book volume ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21 Book chapter (in an edited book) …………………………………………………………………………22

Book chapter (in an edited book with no names on chapters) ……………………………………22

Book illustrations, diagrams, logos or tables…………………………………………………………..23

British Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………23

C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………24 Case Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Cochrane Review………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Command Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………24

Computer game ……………………………………………………………………………………………….25 Computer program …………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Computer software code ……………………………………………………………………………………26

Referencing within Code [For Computing Students] ……………………………………………………26

Header [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………………………..26

Disclaimer/Copyright [For Computing students] ……………………………………………………..26

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Class Library/SDK Referencing [For Computing students] …………………………………………27

Method Referencing [For Computing students] ………………………………………………………27

Referencing within Methods/Classes [For Computing students] …………………………………27 Conference paper……………………………………………………………………………………………..28

Conference poster…………………………………………………………………………………………….28

Conversation (in person)…………………………………………………………………………………….28

D………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29 Dance performance …………………………………………………………………………………………..29

Dance (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Dataset …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

E ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………30

e-book (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..30 e-book (via e-book reader) …………………………………………………………………………………31

e-book chapter in an edited e-book …………………………………………………………………….31

Email………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

EU publication (treaties, directives and regulations and decisions) ……………………………..32 F ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33

Facebook ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Film (DVD, broadcast or digital download) …………………………………………………………….33

Film (DVD: commentaries and special features) ………………………………………………………33

Film (streamed) ………………………………………………………………………………………………..34 G ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34

Government document ……………………………………………………………………………………..34

H………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35

Hansard ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers ……………………………………………………..35 I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (online) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….36

Image (Creative Commons licensed) …………………………………………………………………….36

Informal or in-house publication………………………………………………………………………….36 International standards………………………………………………………………………………………37

Interview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………37

Instagram ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

J ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article…………………………………………………………………………………………………..38

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Journal article (forthcoming) ……………………………………………………………………………….38

Journal article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………….39

Journal article (no issue number; article number given)…………………………………………….39 L……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….39

Leaflet (with no date)…………………………………………………………………………………………40

Lecturer’s/ tutor’s notes……………………………………………………………………………………..40 Legislation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

M ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

Magazine article ……………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Magazine article (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………41 Market report…………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (Digimap) …………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Map (Google Earth) …………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Map (printed) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..43 Map (online) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact ………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Museum artefact (online)……………………………………………………………………………………44

Music (live performance/concert)…………………………………………………………………………44

Band concert: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..45 Classical: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (lyrics) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Music (musical score/sheet music) ……………………………………………………………………….46

Music (recorded track)……………………………………………………………………………………….46

Music streaming……………………………………………………………………………………………….47 N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47

Newspaper article …………………………………………………………………………………………….47

Newspaper article (online) ………………………………………………………………………………….47

O………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48 Ofsted report …………………………………………………………………………………………………..48

Online discussion list or discussion forum ……………………………………………………………..48

Organisational documents/policies ………………………………………………………………………48

Organisational documents/policies (anonymised)……………………………………………………49

P ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49

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Patent …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

PDFs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………50

Play ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50 Podcast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50

Poem, short story or play in an anthology ……………………………………………………………..51

Poem in a collection ………………………………………………………………………………………….51

R ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51 Radio broadcast ……………………………………………………………………………………………….51

Religious text …………………………………………………………………………………………………..52

S ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………52

Self-citation …………………………………………………………………………………………………….52

Skype……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..53 Sound recording (based on recorded lectures) ……………………………………………………….53

Statutory Instrument …………………………………………………………………………………………53

T ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54

Telephone call………………………………………………………………………………………………….54 Television advertisement ……………………………………………………………………………………54

Television programme (broadcast) ……………………………………………………………………….55

Television programme (streamed content, e.g. Netflix, BBC iPlayer)…………………………….55

Theatre performance (live) ………………………………………………………………………………….55

Theatre programme (print) …………………………………………………………………………………56 Thesis or dissertation…………………………………………………………………………………………56

Translated material……………………………………………………………………………………………56

Twitter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

V ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………57

Video (online e.g. YouTube, TED) …………………………………………………………………………57 Video (subscribed content e.g. Anatomy TV, SAGE video) …………………………………………58

W ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..58

Webinar ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58

Website or webpage …………………………………………………………………………………………59 Wiki ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….59

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….60

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Introduction This guide has been designed to provide examples and guidance on how to use UON Harvard referencing in a consistent and accurate manner. Library and Learning Services have also produced a two-page quick start to referencing, ‘The Harvard Referencing – Quick Guide’. It is important to check with your tutor to see if they have any specific referencing requirements.

What is referencing? Referencing is a way of acknowledging other peoples’ ideas and work. You do this through a citation (in the text of your work) and a reference at the end of your work. References to other people’s ideas and work are an important part of academic writing as they: • provide support for arguments and claims that you make • show evidence of the breadth and depth of your reading

Remember to reference every source that you use: • to avoid plagiarism (i.e. to take other peoples’ thoughts, ideas or writings and use them

as your own) • to allow the reader of your work to refer to the original source to check and verify the

ideas presented • to avoid losing marks!

When do you need to reference? You need to reference when: • you quote another person (or group of people) or copy images • you write about an idea which another person (or group of people) has created. For example: There has been a tendency amongst health workers to diagnose women experiencing domestic violence with a mental illness, rather than identifying the distress as a result of violence (Harne and Radford, 2008, p.44).

When is a reference not needed? You do not need to reference when: • when you are writing about your own ideas (unless you have included them in a previous

assignment) • when the information you are writing about is common knowledge, for example: Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire. To decide whether a piece of information is common knowledge, ask yourself whether your reader could be familiar with the information without needing to do any research and whether the information is widely available. If the answer to both of these is ‘yes’, the information is probably common knowledge; but it’s better to err on the side of caution and include a reference if you are in any doubt.

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Citing Referring to sources within your work (citing) The citation within the text of your work is a brief acknowledgement to a source you have used for any of the reasons listed above. If you are using a direct quotation or are referring to a specific idea or assertion by an author, you need to let your reader know where you found the information by giving the author/creator’s surname, the year and the page number, e.g. (Surname, Year, Page). Example 1: Research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem (Jones, 2010, p.4) Example 2: Jones’ research has shown a direct link between body image and self-esteem (2010, p.4) The page number is important, as one of the prime functions of referencing is to enable your reader to quickly locate the information you have used and to verify the conclusions you have drawn. By using the page number, your reader can do this without having to read the entire work. If you are not referring to a specific idea or assertion, but are referring to a work by an author in its entirety or to a more general argument you only need to include the author/creator’s surname and the year, e.g. (Surname, Year). If you have named the author in the flow of your text, you only need to provide the year and page number (if applicable), e.g. (Year, Page). Example 1: Terry Eagleton (1983) created an essential guide to literary theory that still resonates into the twenty first century… Example 2: Nikki Gamble has created a set of activities to aid narrative thinking and investigation (2013, p.70) …

Citing a short quotation … whilst it is possible that “poor parenting has little effect on primary educational development it more profoundly affects secondary or higher educational achievement” (Healey, 2003, p.22). Remember: it is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This demonstrates more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Citing a long quotation Note: There is no need to use quotation marks. Instead start a new line and indent the quotation. Example: The methodology required for a thorough literature search requires an understanding of a number of different sources:

… it is important to be familiar with the tertiary sources (bibliographies of bibliographies), which will help you to identify the secondary sources (such as bibliographies, indexes and abstracts), which will then lead you to primary sources for your review (Pickard, 2013, p.27).

8

You do not need to include the page number from the quotation in your reference list. If you are taking a quotation from a website you may not be able to find a page number, so you will need to include an indication of where the quote can be found. Give a line or screen number instead, e.g. use [45 lines] or [approx. 5 screens].

Aiming to paraphrase rather than quote It is best to paraphrase the sources you have used in your work, putting the author’s words into your own and crediting them with the idea through the citation. This demonstrates more understanding of the content. Try and keep quotations to a minimum.

Making changes to quotations Making small changes to quotations can help you integrate them into your own writing. Omitting part of a quotation or adding your own letters, words or phrases can create a smooth transition between your ideas and those of the authors you are quoting. However, make sure you do not change the original meaning.

Omitting part of a quotation Indicate this by using three dots (an ellipsis): Example: Bell (2014, p.105) states that the main purpose of a literature review is to “provide the reader with a picture … of the state of knowledge and of major questions on the subject”. You do not need to begin or end a direct quotation with ellipsis points. The reader already assumes that the quote has been excerpted from a larger work.

Inserting your own or different words into a quotation. Indicate this with brackets [ ]: Example: Original quotation: 'In this field, social workers are working very closely with families …' (Oliver, 2008, p.17). Quotation with an insertion: 'In this field [crime prevention], social workers are working very closely with families …' (Oliver, 2008, p.17).

Pointing out an error Do not correct typographical or grammatical errors (such as a spelling mistake or incorrect date); instead add [sic] after the original: Gardner (2008, p.35) pointed out that 'the government maid [sic] the wrong decision'.

Adding your own emphasis If you want to emphasise something in a quotation that is particularly relevant to your essay, put the emphasised words in italics, and state that the emphasis is your own.

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Example: Bell (2014, p. 239) explains that in qualitative data analysis “it is not the words themselves that matter, but their meaning” (emphasis added). If the original has italics, state that the italics are in the original. Example: Bell (2014, p. 82) acknowledges that “all disciplines have a core of quality journals that include nationally or even internationally refereed articles” (italics in original).

Citing more than one source If you are citing more than one source, you can separate them with a semi colon. Example: There are many factors relating to individuals’ perceived body image. Jones (2010, p.4) has suggested that body image is related to self-esteem, whereas others believe a more complex relationship exists (Philips, 1995; Norton, 2005). In your reference list at the end of your work, make sure you reference these separately.

Citing a source with more than one author Some sources will have several authors. If there are two authors, write (Surname A and Surname B, Year). In your text, your citation could look like this: Example: A number of practitioners have tackled the issue of teaching information skills in the university setting (Webb and Powis, 2004). If there are more than two authors, you can use et al. which means ‘and others’ in Latin, e.g. (Surname et al., Year). For three or more authors, don’t list all of them, just the first one named: …There has been some debate amongst medical practitioners on the issue (Williamson et al., 2008) … However, in your reference list you must make sure you give credit to all the authors (don’t use et al.). Instead, write all of the authors in the order that they appear on your source as shown below: Williamson, G. R., Jenkinson, T. and Proctor-Childs, T. (2008) Nursing in contemporary healthcare practice. Exeter: Learning Matters. Remember: et al. should be in

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