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In this assignment students will be creating a presenta

 

In this assignment students will be creating a presentation on  innovations in biology and technology. students will be submitting it  into their assignment folder as a video link of a narrated PowerPoint or  Slides presentation, and a Word document of your narration (your  “speaker’s notes) which will be reviewed for similarity by Turnitin.  Instructions on how to complete this procedure can be found below.

This assignment addresses course outcomes 1-4: 

  • recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems. 
  • make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations. 
  • weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method. 
  • use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and  appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses,  design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusion.

 

) Personal Genomics. Services like 23andMe and Ancestry have  made it possible – even popular – for the average person to obtain  in-depth information about their genome, including details like food  allergies, drug sensitivities, and disease risks.  There are even add-on  sites that will take this information and generate elaborate reports,  such as Promethease

  • Describe  how this data is obtained, and what it actually includes. Start your  explanation with a basic description of DNA and how genes control our  traits (the Central Dogma).
     
  • Use  information from the course readings, at least one service provider  (e.g., 23&Me, Ancestry), and additional information resources.  
     
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of this easy, rapid, and affordable access to genomic data? 
     
  •  What are the social implications, in terms of benefits and risks?  
     
  • Is Genome Privacy (restricting access to an individual’s private genomic data) a potential issue, and if so, how?  
     
  • If you, or  someone you know, have had your own genome analyzed, discuss the thought  process that led you (or them) to do so, and share how you felt when  you found your results.
     
  • If you haven't, discuss why or why you would not want to have this information.
     

Instruction: Innovations in Biology and Technology

This assignment is an opportunity for students to dive more deeply into a topic they'd like to learn more about.  It can be very satisfying to gain an understanding about a topic that may be challenging!

Please review the example of Assignment 2 provided in the Content area. 

Summary of Instructions:

In this assignment students will be creating a presentation on innovations in biology and technology. students will be submitting it into their assignment folder as a video link of a narrated PowerPoint or Slides presentation, and a Word document of your narration (your “speaker’s notes) which will be reviewed for similarity by Turnitin. Instructions on how to complete this procedure can be found below.

This assignment addresses course outcomes 1-4: 

· recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems. 

· make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations. 

· weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method. 

· use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions.

The final submission should include 3 items:

1. Power Point Presentation of Topic with 12 slides

2. Document with Speaker Notes (word document or pdf)

3. Link to YouTube video of Power Point with Narration or 

Below are detailed instructions on how to complete the assignment.

1. Select one of the five topics below. (Vaccines, Personal Genomics, CRISPR, Bioprinting, or Human Caused Global Climate Change)

· b) Personal Genomics. Services like  23andMe  and  Ancestry  have made it possible – even popular – for the average person to obtain in-depth information about their genome, including details like food allergies, drug sensitivities, and disease risks.  There are even add-on sites that will take this information and generate elaborate reports, such as Promethease.

· Describe how this data is obtained, and what it actually includes. Start your explanation with a basic description of DNA and how genes control our traits (the Central Dogma).

· Use information from the course readings, at least one service provider (e.g., 23&Me, Ancestry), and additional information resources.  

· What are the advantages and disadvantages of this easy, rapid, and affordable access to genomic data? 

·  What are the social implications, in terms of benefits and risks?  

· Is Genome Privacy (restricting access to an individual’s private genomic data) a potential issue, and if so, how?  

· If you, or someone you know, have had your own genome analyzed, discuss the thought process that led you (or them) to do so, and share how you felt when you found your results.

· If you haven't, discuss why or why you would not want to have this information.

2.  Find at least five articles related to one of the topics chosen from above (You can find assistance with searching for articles at the UMGC Library Subject Guides at http://libguides.umgc.edu/science )

3. Create a narrated PowerPoint presentation. The presentation should be between 4 – 7 minutes long (maximum).

Download the desktop version of PowerPoint on your computer if you have not already. This is needed to add narration. All UMGC students can download Office 365, including Power Point, for free:    

https://www.umgc.edu/help/help-topic.cfm?title=Office-365-How-do-I-download-Office-to-a-Windows-PC-Students&table=FAQ_IT__kav&action=getArticle    

**** Students need to submit a narrated PowerPoint presentation as a video and can use whatever format they are comfortable with. For example Zoom , Screencastify. , Vimeo, Loom, YouTube are all fine. (Instructions below). Students may also submit the MPEG4 file directly to the assignment folder, if not too large. 

4. Copy and Paste Speaker Notes onto a word or pdf document.  Please number the notes that correspond with each slide.  Speaker notes may be made ahead of time or may be copied and pasted from the automatically generated transcript on YouTube.

Download the desktop version of Power Point on your computer if you have not already. This is needed to add narration. All UMGC students can download Office 365, including Power Point, for free:  

https://www.umgc.edu/help/help-topic.cfm?title=Office-365-How-do-I-download-Office-to-a-Windows-PC-Students&table=FAQ_IT__kav&action=getArticle  

Below students will find a guide to create effective presentations: 

https://business.tutsplus.com/articles/powerpoint-guidelines-design-effective-presentations–cms-34595  

Narrated PowerPoint instructions

· 1. Write a script for your narration for each slide in a Word document. It is OK if you do not strictly follow the script when you narrate.  Students may instead download the automatically generated transcript from YouTube*.  Instructions are below.

· 2. Record the narration in Power Point. Go to Insert and click the Audio icon (to the right in the editing bar), choose Record Audio… from the drop-down menu. Click the red button to start your narration, then the blue button to stop. Check that your recording is OK. You can delete a recording and start over, and you can also do some minor editing by cutting off the start and/or end of the recording. Repeat for all the slides in your presentation. You may want to move the narration icon that appears in the middle of the slide to a corner.  

· The following video is very helpful:

· https://www.groovypost.com/howto/add-audio-microsoft-powerpoint-presentation/  

· 3. Save as MPEG4 File. Once your narrated Power Point presentation is completed, save it on your computer as a MPG4 file video by clicking File > Save > Choose MPEG4 format from drop down menu. Creating the video will take a few minutes. You can see a progress bar at the bottom.  

· *An alternative to writing the script prior to the narration is to follow this approach to download an automatically generated transcript from YouTube (Note: you need to allow extra time for the close captioning/transcript to be generated, remember to choose the language as “English”), see this video for more detail if you want to use this approach: 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxb0X1fdbaI  

,

Antibiotics

BIOL 101 at UMGC

July 30, 2020

Purpose

Aunt Jeanie hasn’t been feeling well. She has had a fever and a sore throat for a few days. After finally convincing her to go to the doctor’s, she has been prescribed antibiotics to clear up an infection in her throat. Aunt Jeanie prefers natural methods of healing and doesn’t want to take the antibiotics.

I am researching antibiotics in order to advise Aunt Jeanie on the wisdom of taking the medicine.

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC

Background

The word “Antibiotic” means “against life”

Antibiotics were first discovered in the 1920’s

Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria

Before then, many people died from bacterial infections such as Strep Throat

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY

How Do Antibiotics Work?

Almost all organs in the body can be infected by bacteria

Bacteria are single celled organisms made from prokaryotic cells

Some bacteria can be harmful to the body by secreting toxins that damage tissues

Some bacteria invade tissues and their population growth damages the tissue

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC

How Do Antibiotics Work?

Penicillin

“Penicillins block the protein struts that link the peptidoglycans together. This prevents the bacterium from closing the holes that develop in its cell walls after cell division.” (Medical News Today, 2018)

Tetracycline

“Tetracycline works by binding specifically to the 30S ribosome of the bacteria, preventing attachment of the tRNA to the RNA-ribosome complex and inhibiting protein synthesis.” (Bristol University School of Chemistry, 2001)

Chloramphenicol

“Chloramphenicol binds to the 50S ribosome, inhibiting peptidyl transferase which prevents amino acid adding to protein chains in protein synthesis.” (University of Minnesota, 2018)

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC

Some Diseases that Antibiotics Help With

Ear infections

Sinus infections

Skin infections

Meningitis

Strep Throat

Bladder and Kidney Infections

Bacterial Pneumonias

Whooping Cough

How Antibiotics Have Impacted Disease Over the Last 100 Years

Molds and plant extracts were used to treat infections though people didn’t realize the infections were caused by bacteria

Ancient Egyptians applied moldy bread to wounds!

Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered penicillin in 1928 when he noticed fungus growing on a plate with Staphylococcus. There were bacteria free zones where the fungus ended up!

90% of children with bacterial meningitis died before antibiotics and strep throat could be fatal

Life expectancy has risen to 78.8 years old

13% of the US Population is now older compared to 4%

Infectious diseases are concerns with elderly, those with cancer, surgical patients, people who are immunosuppressed – rarely in young and healthy population

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

Reasons Why People Worry About Antibiotics

Antibiotics do not work on viruses such as those that cause the flu and colds

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC

Why People Worry About Antibiotics

Antibiotics can cause side effects when they kill helpful gut bacteria

Vomiting

Nausea

Diarrhea

Bloating or indigestion

Abdominal pain

Hives, itchy skin

Wheezing

Coughing

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA

Why People Worry About Antibiotics

If antibiotics are taken when they aren’t needed or if the course of antibiotic is not completed, antibiotic resistant bacteria can grow

Bacteria that are less susceptible to antibiotics remain in the body

They are then able to divide and cause an infection

The offspring of these bacteria contain genes that are less susceptible to antibiotics

Over time, antibiotic resistant bacteria are bred

MRSA Methyllin Resistant Staphyloccos aureus

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND

Conclusion

Antibiotics are usually fast acting and target the bacteria causing infection

Side effects are short lived and can be treated

Bacterial infections left untreated can lead to fatal infections

According to the Journal of American Medical Association in 2002, doctors prescribed 40% fewer antibiotics compared to the 1990s to decrease antibiotic resistance

Take the antibiotics as prescribed and the is little chance of the infection returning!

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY

References

Web MD July 1, 2020 https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-are-antibiotics#2

NHS National Health Services UK May 23, 2019 https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antibiotics/

Medical News Today, How Do Penicillins Work? July 30, 2018 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/216798#takeaway

Microbiology Society, The History of Antibiotics 2020 https://microbiologysociety.org/members-outreach-resources/outreach-resources/antibiotics-unearthed/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance/the-history-of-antibiotics.html

Healthy Children, November 15, 2019 https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/treatments/Pages/The-History-of-Antibiotics.aspx

Tetracycline, Molecule of the Month, Bristol University School of Chemistry, Rafal Klagn, October 2001 http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/tetracycline/tetracycline.htm

US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, The Treasure Called Antibiotics, WA Adedeji, Dec. 14, 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354621/

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