21 Jun Food Analysis You are using whole wheat flour as an ing
Based on the video above, please answer the following questions;
Food Analysis (400 words)
1. You are using whole wheat flour as an ingredient in a baked product. Upon receiving the flour from the supplier the quality control lab is responsible to withdraw samples and carryout proximate analysis
a. You receive ten 40 lb bags of flour at a time, state the sampling plan and size you would choose. Explain your answer
b. To determine iron content, would you use the ash obtained from dry ashing or
would you rather follow a wet ashing procedure? Explain your answer.
c. State an official method for analyzing each of the mentioned constituents, moisture, fat, protein, ash and iron. Briefly, explain the principle of each method.
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Food Studies Assignment | How to do it Assignment Overview 1
Sample Area A Assignment 1 4
Sample Area A Assignment 2 9
Sample Area B Assignment 3 13
Sample Area C Assignment 4 18
Sample Area D Task 5 22
Food Studies Assignments | Overview
When to do it: The assignments are common to both higher and ordinary level and account for 20% of your overall mark (80 marks), therefore they must be given sufficient time and consideration. Most of the work for these should be completed by the end of 5th year so that all you need to do is transfer your completed and corrected drafts into the official booklets when they arrive to your school in October of 6th year, with the deadline for completion usually immediately following the mid-term break. Students should avoid leaving the assignments to be done in September of 6th year, as this leads to missing valuable class time and potentially falling one month behind in their other subjects, something which is not uncommon for students who do not stay on top of these assignments.
How to do your research: Each year there are 6 assignments given with 5 of these to be completed, each one concerning a different aspect of food science and/or health issues on your course. Although these topics change each year, some are regularly repeated. For this reason, it is important to research the focused topics in depth as there may be resources available to you i.e. marking schemes on the SEC website and sample assignments such as the ones found on Studyclix. Do not limit your research on the topic at hand to merely your Home Economics text book. Use a range of different websites and books where possible to ensure a well-rounded and in-depth knowledge of each topic.
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Understanding headings: Often students fail to understand the headings of each section, and as a result the information they give is insufficient. It is crucial to understand fully what is required in each section of the booklet if you wish to receive a high grade in this area
Investigation: Analysis and Research is the most important section in your coursework journal as it accounts for 30 marks. 20 marks go for initial research using a range of sources, 4 marks for 2 possible solutions, 4 marks for 2 reasons for choosing your solution, and 2 marks for naming 2 different sources. Students often overlook this as an easy part of the task, however they often fail to meet all requirements. You must analyse in depth what is being asked of you in the assignment title for your research section. Consider all possible solutions to the task, and why each one would be a good solution. For example, for a task dealing with the preparation of a meal for an adult suffering from coronary heart disease, you must consider the nutritional value of each ingredient which you will include in your meal. Do not simply say I will use chicken instead of beef as the main ingredient as it is lower in cholesterol. Instead, consider which foods will lower cholesterol (nuts, peas, salmon, etc.). The inclusion of as many relevant ingredients in your recipe as possible, rather than only 1, will make you stand out to the examiner as an A student who understands fully the requirements of the task.
Preparation and Planning, the second section accounts for just 6 marks and is more to help the student themselves to carry out the task. They must name the dish, source of the recipe and give the date of the practical. Ingredients must be listed in order of descending quantity, with prices to be worked out for the quantities used. For example, if you buy a packet of 4 chicken breasts for €5 but only use 2 in your recipe, then price this in the relevant column as €2.50. Make sure to practice your dish before your practical in class so that the key equipment section is accurately filled in, avoiding any issues on the day. For the work plan, make sure to say pre heat oven to 160 degrees Celsius etc. if you will be using an oven, or if you are frying vegetables or meat make sure that you say to pre heat the oil before adding food. These are common errors made and will lose a student easy marks. List all steps in a logical sequence, preferable in a numbered layout. Neatness and clarity in the coursework journal are essential. You should finish the work plan with “serve dish, wash up and evaluate”.
The Implementation section is very important, accumulating to 28 marks. Marks are often lost heavily here quite easily due to students not including all requirements. Essentially, the student should repeat what they have said in the work plan, but expanding on each point and discussing why they did each step. The explanations must be detailed, justifying all actions. It will not be very impressive to an examiner if a student does not know why they did what they did. Expand
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each point out fully with 2 or 3 comments on each step to impress and ensure a high grade. Ensure each step is in order and that you include the cooking times and temperatures. Don’t forget to discuss the presentation of your dish, your wash up and that you finished the task with an evaluation. You must state clearly 2 key factors in your task, i.e. 2 things that were essential for the success of your dish. This could be to ensure you preheated the oven to avoid an unevenly-cooked cake or that you made sure to preheat the cooking oil to avoid soggy vegetables. Again, you must justify every statement you make. Finally, you must include 1 safety and 1 hygiene factor, each worth 2 marks with justifications.
The evaluation is worth 16 marks and is split into 2 parts; an evaluation of what you did (8 marks) and an evaluation of the specific requirements of the task (8 marks). For the first part, include a discussion of the texture, colour and taste of the dish, 1 difficulty that came about, 1 thing that you learned, 1 thing you could improve on and a comment on how you knew the dish was ready. For the second part, look at the task title again and comment on how you feel your chosen disk suitably acted as a solution to the requirements. Give several points here on different aspects of the dish to ensure you give enough information to satisfy the 8 mark total. Each time you make a statement, keep thinking why you did / choose something and you won’t go far wrong.
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Sample Area A Assignment 1 | Investigation: Analysis/Research
Nutritional requirements: This assignment is asking me to cook and serve a cheap, healthy, well balanced meal that all family members will enjoy. The family that I will be cooking for will have two children aged 7 and 10 and two parents in their forties. Each member of the family has different dietary needs, and for this reason I must be careful with which ingredients I chose to use.
Protein: As the most important nutrient, it is crucial for the children’s growth and repair of cells, and also the repair of the adult’s cells.
Carbohydrates: These should consume around 1/3 of the serving plate because they are necessary for energy. The children will have a recommended intake of 1700-2000 calories and adults in the range of 1800-2800, depending on activity, gender, age and other contributing factors. The main course must provide a large amount of this energy intake to maintain a balance of energy input and energy output.
Fat: An emphasis should be put on unsaturated fats. I will also consider the healthy eating guidelines, which recommend reducing salt, fat and sugar, as well as increasing fibre in our diet. All of these apply to the family which I will cook for.
Vitamins: Vit A (Retinol) – healthy eyes, B1 (Thiamin) – heart, B2 (Riboflavin) – growth, B3 (Niacin) – skin, B5 (Pantothenic Acid) – metabolism, B6 (Pyridoxine) – healthy immune system, B7 (Biotin) – hair, B9 (folic acid) – growth and repair, B12 – nervous system, Vit C (ascorbic acid) – general heath, Vit D – bones, Vit E (Tocopherol) – antioxidant, Vit K – blood clotting and bones.
Minerals: Iron for transporting oxygen in the blood through haemoglobin, calcium for strong bones. I will consider all of these requirements when selecting the dish that I will cook.
Meal Planning Guidelines: The modern family faces many issues; Due to the recession, people have less money to spend on buying ingredients. They may also have less time to spend making the main meal of the day. For this reason I will avoid cooking an expensive, time-consuming dish such as steak. It must also be quick and easy to make, as the family members may have little time in their busy schedules. It must be will balanced because it is crucial that the main course supplies all or most of the nutrients that we need.
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2 possible solutions: Shepard’s pie / Pasta and chicken bake
I have chosen to make a pasta and chicken vegetable bake because it is a well-balanced, low budget meal. It appeals to the whole family and provides them with all the key nutrients which they need. The pasta provides carbohydrates supplying energy to the family and most importantly the growing children. The protein in the chicken is important for the children’s growth and also to the parent’s repair of cells. The tomatoes, carrots, peppers, asparagus and chillies provide vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E. The carrots also provide vitamin K, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. These are all needed to keep the immune system strong, healthy skin, bones, teeth, and growth and repair of the body. The cheese provides calcium, and the olive oil keeps the heart healthy. The chillies, tomatoes, and garlic are also disease-fighting antioxidants. This meal is extremely nutritious, suitable for a low-budget and is very appealing and tasty. It has an essence of the Mediterranean and I think it is far nicer than a more traditional dish like Shepard’s pie.
Preparation and Planning Ingredients: 200g penne pasta – 85c 1 tbsp olive oil – 5c 2 garlic cloves – free 2 small red chillies – 20c 1 red pepper – 49c 50g asparagus – €1 2 carrots – 30c 1 tin chopped tomatoes – 69c Mixed herbs – 5c 2 chicken breasts – €2 50g feta cheese – 50c Sprinkle of parmesan cheese – 10c Total cost = €6.23 Equipment: 3 Pots
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2 Waste bins 2 Table spoons Cutlery plate 2 Chopping boards 2 Sharp knives Fork Pasta drainer Slotted turner Casserole dish Serving spoon Serving plate Work sequence/time allocation: Gather equipment and lay out ingredients Preheat oven to 160 degrees Celsius Boil water in pot and cook pasta for 10 minutes simmering Cut and chop vegetables, add to heated oil in another pot and cook for 5 minutes Meanwhile heat oil in pot and brown chicken when hot Add chopped tomatoes, mixed herbs and some water to vegetables then stir in chicken Drain pasta and add to chicken and vegetables Place in dish in a preheated oven, cook for 35 minutes Top with cheese Serve and evaluate Implementation
The first thing I did was preheat my oven to 160 degrees Celsius because an oven must be hot before you use it. I half-filled a pot with boiling water from the kettle to speed up the process and set the hob to mark 5. As soon as it was boiling there, I added the water, reduced the temperate to 3, half-covered the pot and then allowed it to simmer, stirring occasionally. I cut my vegetables in particular ways to improve appearance and also to avoid waste. I cut the carrots in thin chunks to make sure they cook quickly. I cut the peppers in long, thin strips and cut the asparagus in halves. I thinly and carefully chopped up the garlic clove into miniscule pieces, and the chili into small strips. I had to ensure that no chili seeds remained as they are very dangerous and could even make you blind if they got near your eyes. I washed my hands both before and after dealing
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with the vegetables for hygiene reasons and also safety reasons, regarding the chili seeds. Then I sliced the chicken into chunks with a fork and sharp knife. I cut the chicken on a special chopping board to avoid cross contamination, and also washed it immediately after use as well as my hands. In 2 separate pots, I heated up some oil. When hot, I sautéed the vegetables and browned the chicken separately for hygiene reasons. I drained off excess oil from the chicken before adding to the vegetables to reduce the fat content of the meal. I added in the chopped tomatoes and herbs at this stage as they need little heating. I threw in some water for some moisture in the sauce. I then mixed everything together after draining the pasta and stirred everything into the large dish. Then I put the dish in the oven and baked for 35 minutes. I put a piece of tin foil in between the dish and lid to retain moisture. I added the cheese after baking it so that it melts in subtly and adds to the presentation and flavour.
1. Safety factor: I took special care to remove all the chili seeds and I washed my hands after disposing of them to avoid the risk of burning my eyes or skin.
2. Hygiene factor: I washed my hands before and after handling the raw chicken and I washed the sharp knife, fork and chopping board I used with hot soapy water to avoid cross contamination and diseases such as salmonella. I also made sure the chicken was fully browned and cooked by putting a few pieces in half to check the inside.
Colour: It is a colourful dish, with red, orange and green vegetables. The garnish of cheese enhanced the presentation and added further flavour and texture.
Flavour: The flavour was nice with a subtle spice from the chili. The vegetables each added their own element of flavour to lighten up the bland pasta. The chicken was very tasty due to
Texture: The texture was creamy and smooth, and the vegetables were slightly crunchy. The pasta was soft and the chicken was smooth and tender.
Issues & Improvements: Everything went as expected during the making of this meal, however next time I might use more chili or different herbs to give it even more flavour. I planned everything well in general, so there was no time wasted and I knew what I was doing, using the time allocations effectively. I would also cut the carrots in strips like the pepper to make them cook even quicker and improve the appearance, and I could also serve it with some mixed salad to provide more vitamins and minerals.
Analysis: My pasta and chicken vegetable bake turned out very well. I didn’t over-bake it in the oven so the moisture and sauce were retained. Overall my meal satisfied the brief well:
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1. It was a very tasty, healthy, well balanced, and does not take a long time to make. It provides all nutrients needed in a main meal for a family and a variety of vitamins and minerals which are essential.
2. It is a low budget meal and works out very cheap for each person so it is perfect for the modern family. I think it would be enjoyed by the whole family due to its colour, flavour and easiness to eat.
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Sample Area A Assignment 2 | Investigation: Analysis/Research
Risk factors: There are many risk factors associated with poor cardiovascular health. These include hereditary, stress, unhealthy diet, obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. One or more of these factors may cause the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart to narrow, due to the build-up of fatty substances in the arteries.
Nutritional requirements: It is crucial that people who suffer from heart disease are aware of their nutritional needs and follow a healthy, well balanced diet. Protein is the most important nutrient; however people with poor cardiovascular health must be extremely careful. Focus on vegetable proteins, nuts and cereals especially. They need to reduce saturated fats from animal meat. Unsaturated fats from vegetables and fish oils are better because they contain low density lipoproteins which remove cholesterol from the arteries. Avoid eating visible fat and processed snacks. They need to reduce sugary carbohydrates and increase dietary fibre instead. Make sure to balance this diet with 2 litres of water a day for optimum health. Vitamins and minerals are needed for general body function.
Meal Planning Guidelines: Taking all of the nutritional requirements and meal planning guidelines into consideration, I have chosen to make a chicken stir fry with wholegrain rice and assorted vegetables. Chicken provides low fat protein which is ideal for healthy cardiovascular health. The cashew nuts also provide low biological value protein. Wholegrain rice is high in fibre, needed for slow release energy. Vitamins A, B, C, E and K can be found in the selection of vegetables: red pepper, carrot, mange tout garlic, baby corn. The minerals potassium, phosphorus and calcium can be found in coconut milk and carrots. Iron is in the mange tout and cashew nuts. Overall this meal is well balanced and contains 3 out of the 4 food groups. It is perfect for somebody suffering from a heart disease as it complies with all the necessary guidelines. I will drizzle the dish lightly with low-salt soy sauce because it is quite high in sodium, and also some coconut milk. It will add flavour, forming a sauce, and improve the presentation of the meal.
Breakfast: porridge with mixed berries, orange juice, yoghurt
Lunch: wholegrain tune and cheese sandwich with mixed vegetable soup
Dinner: chicken stir fry with wholegrain rice and vegetables
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I have chosen a chicken stir fry because it is perfect for someone suffering from heart disease as it is low in salt and it is also a well-balanced, attractive and tasty meal. It provides all key nutrients required.
Preparation and Planning Ingredients: 125g wholegrain rice – 32c 2 tbsp olive oil – 5c 1 garlic clove – 5c 2 chicken breasts – €3 1 red pepper – 99c 25g mange tout – 50c 2 carrots – 26c 25g baby corn – 50c 20ml coconut milk – 10c 50g cashew nuts – 10c 10ml soy sauce – 20c Total cost = €6.07 for 2 people, €3.04 each Equipment: 1 Pot 2 Frying pans 2 Waste bins 2 Table spoons Cutlery plate Knife Fork 2 Chopping knives Slotted turner Serving spoon Work sequence/time allocation: Gather equipment and lay out ingredients Boil water for rice, cook for 25 minutes Heat oil and add chicken when hot, cook until browned
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Cut and chop vegetables Add vegetables to heated oil in another pot and cook for 10 minutes Drain excess oil from chicken and add to vegetables, add cashews Drizzle with light soy sauce and coconut milk with a bit of water Serve and evaluate Implementation
First, I half-filled a pot with boiling water from the kettle to cook the rice. I did this to save time as wholegrain rice takes at least 25 minutes to cook. It is high in fibre so it must be cooked for longer than basmati or long grain rice. It is crucial that the oil in the frying pan is heated and sizzling before I add the garlic. If I had added it in before the oil was hot, the vegetables and chicken would have soaked it up and become soggy. The fat content would also become higher as I wouldn’t be able to drain off excess oil. I cut the carrots, pepper and baby corn in long slim strips so that they cook quicker and to improve presentation. I sliced the mange tout is half diagonal for further added textures. I cooked the chicken separately to ensure that it was fully browned to avoid any risk of food poisoning or illness. I made sure that it was completely cooked by cutting a piece in half when I thought it was ready and making sure that it was properly browned. Then I drained off excess oil and added it to the vegetables so that I could mix in the sauce all together. I drizzled in the soy sauce and stirred in the coconut milk with some water to keep the dish moist and tasty. When I served the dish, I put the rice on the plate first so the sauce would go over it. I presented the vegetables in an artistic way in the centre of the rice to improve presentation. Finally, I drizzled over the left over sauce for flavour.
– Heat oil before vegetables and chicken are added to avoid them becoming soggy – Make sure the brown rice is cooked for the right amount of time to avoid a dry, overly
Safety / hygiene:
– I must ensure that the chop the vegetables correctly and safely to avoid an accident – I must wash my hands both before and after dealing with the chicken and take care with
the equipment to avoid cross contamination
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Implementation: My dish turned out extremely well and had a delicious yet subtle flavouring with varying textures. Everything was cooked perfectly for the right amount of time, and I presented it nicely with the vegetables and chicken on top of the rice, drizzled in some sauce.
Colour: It was very colourful due to the range of vegetables I chose; red peppers, yellow corn, green mange tout, orange carrot, as well as white chicken and brown rice.
Texture: The rice was perfectly cooked, as was the chicken. The vegetables were well-cooked, slightly soft and crunchy. The sauce was light and creamy.
Flavour: Subtle flavouring from the soy sauce and coconut milk. The rice was quite high in fibre however the flavour of the vegetables made it pleasant. The peppers were juicy and sweet. The chicken was very tasty.
Specific requirements of the assignment: If I was to make this meal again, I would avoid using the coconut milk as, even though I used only a tiny amount, it contains saturated fat. Instead I might substitute it for a spice such as paprika to add extra flavouring. I might also put a garnish such as some parsley on top to improve the presentation. Other than that, my meal was perfectly suitable for someone suffering from heart disease. If a diet similar to my sample menu was followed, a person’s cardiovascular health would improve sufficiently, along with other lifestyle changes.
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Sample Area B Assignment 3 | Investigation: Analysis/Research
Gelatine is a colourless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues such as bone and
skin. It is used as a gelling agent in food, cosmetic manufacturing and pharmaceuticals. It is found in many jelly-like sweets as well as marshmallows, ice cream, cheesecake and yogurt. Household gelatine comes in the form of sheets, granules or powder. Instant types can be added directly to food as they are, others need to be soaked in water prior to use. Gelatine is an irreversibly hydrolysed form of collagen (proteins). Different forms of gelatine exist to meet the needs of those wishing to use alternatives to meat products for various reasons.
Types of Gelatine
Unflavored Gelatin – a thickening agent with no taste, colour or odour. Used to stabilise whipped cream, pie fillings, custards, cheesecakes and trifles. The granulated form and sheet form are most widely available and used in home baking.
Isinglass – a type of gelatine extracted from the air bladders of certain fish, particularly sturgeon, but is rarely used these days. A cheaper version has also been developed from cod. It is not often used, but in the past was used in confectionary such as fruit jellies.
Carrageen – also known as Irish moss, a thickening agent derived from red algae seaweed which grows off the coast of Ireland, often used in making homebrews and meads. Used as a stabiliser and thickener in processed foods, milk products and ice cream. Not as widely available as ordinary unflavoured gelatine, but is suitable for vegetarians.
Agar – also known as kanten and Japanese gelatine, a dried seaweed sold in blocks, powder and strands used as a setting agent. Agar has stronger setting properties than gelatine, so less is needed when substituting. Used as a vegetarian gelatine in jellies and confectionery. It comes from agarophyte red algae and is popular in Asia for use in baking.
Pectin – occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables and is used in the preparation of jams, jellies and preserves. Can also be extracted from fish bones. Available in a solution or powdered form.
How gelatine is used
Gelatine is extracted from the bones and hooves of animals which have been purified and dried. Gelatine is colourless, odourless and tasteless. It can absorb large quantities of hot water to form a solution. When this solution cools it sets as a gel – knows as gelation.
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Powdered gelatine – Sprinkle the granules of gelatine over cold water. Do not dump them in a pile as the granules in the middle won’t dissolve. Allow to stand for 5-10 minutes. Add warm liquid or heat gently, stirring until dissolved. To verify the granules are melted, lift the stirring utensil and make certain that there are no undissolved granules clinging to it.
Sheet gelatine – Soak sheets of gelatine in a bowl of cold water for 5-10 minutes. Once soft, lift the sheets from the water. Wring gently to remove excess water, and then add to warm liquid stirring until dissolved. If adding to a cold mixture, melt the softened sheets in a saucepan or microwave over very low heat, stirring just until melted completely. Then stir into the cold mixture gradually.
Dishes that illustrate the use of gelatine
Gelatine is used in many semi-solid dishes including: Cheesecakes, mousses, soufflés, marshmallows, puddings, panna cotta, jelly, pies, ice cream, and yogurt
Ensuring success when using gelatine
To ensure the success of a recipe, use 15g of gelatine to 500 ml of liquid. Add the gelatine to either cold or warm water, ensuring that it is not boiling as it will lose its gelling power. Dissolve it by stirring in a bowl over gently simmering water. Use when the solution is clear. Keep gelatine dishes refrigerated until ready to serve to maintain their gelatinous state and avoid spoiling. Do not add fresh or frozen pineapple, raw figs, kiwifruit, ginger root or papaya to gelatine, as these fruits contain an enzyme called bromelain which breaks down gelatine causing it to lose its thickening properties.
2 possible solutions: Strawberry cheesecake, vanilla panna cotta
I have chosen to make a strawberry cheesecake:
1. Gelatine is used in the preparation 2. It is a tasty, popular dish
Preparation and planning
175g digestive biscuits, finely crushed – 73c
75g butter, melted – 40c
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120g strawberries, hulled and halved – €3
300g Philadelphia cream cheese – €3.38
150g castor sugar – 20c
2 gelatine leaves, softened – 35c
150ml double cream, whipped – €1.45
150ml natural Greek yoghurt – €1.25
Total cost: €10.76
20cm spring form cake tin
2 mixing bowels
Work sequence/time allocation:
– Grease and line the base of the tin – Mix the crushed biscuits and melted butter together and press into the base of the tin – Chill in the fridge for several hours – Heat up most of the strawberries with 75g castor sugar and 2 tablespoons of water in a
saucepan until soft – Allow the gelatine to soften in cold water for 5 minutes, drain water then add to the
strawberries to dissolve
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– Beat the cream cheese and remaining sugar in a mixing bowl until smooth – Add the cooled strawberry and gelatine mixture and beat again – Add the yoghurt and double cream, folding in until thoroughly combined – Pour over the biscuit base and chill for a minimum of 6 hours – When ready, place the remaining strawberries on top to decorate – Serve and evaluate
I greased the tin well with some butter and lined the bass with parchment paper to avoid it sticking during setting. I crushed the biscuits into tiny pieces by putting them in a sealable plastic and using a rolling pin to make them even. I melted the butter in the microwave as this is fast and easy. I mixed this with the biscuits straight away to form a moist mixture. I combined both together until it the butter was evenly distributed. I patted the mixture down firmly into the tin to form a solid base. I made sure that the fridge was a temperature between 1.7 and 3.3*C before I placed the tin in it to allow the base to harden. When this was set, I began to make the cream cheese mixture. I heated up the strawberries on the hob with castor sugar and water to let them soften and melt gently. I put the gelatine in a jug of soft water to soften in before I melted it. This is effective when using leaf gelatine so that it works efficiently. When soft I stirred it into the strawberries until dissolved completely. In a bowl I beat the cream cheese and remaining sugar until a light smooth consistency was obtained. Then I added the cooled strawberry and gelatine mixture making sure to combine everything well so that the gelatine would be successful. I then folded in the yogurt and double cream until combined evenly. When I was happy with the texture I poured this mixture on top of the biscuit base and gave it 6 hours to set in the fridge. When it was ready, I sliced 2 strawberries in slivers and decorated the top of the cheesecake. I was able to remove the side of the spring form tin so that the base of the tin remained as a serving platter also. It was easy to serve as the gelatine allowed the cheesecake to set.
Colour: Vibrant light pink colour with a light golden brown base. The colours were very appetising and contributed to the overall presentation.
Flavour: It had a very fruity taste and the strawberry was a perfect acidity. It was refreshing and not too bitter. The base was light and complimentary to the fruity mixture.
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Texture: The crunch of the biscuit base enh