Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Determine how you would leverage this model in your work environment (or a past or future work environment).? ??determine which phase is the most important. Determine three significa | EssayAbode

Determine how you would leverage this model in your work environment (or a past or future work environment).? ??determine which phase is the most important. Determine three significa


see attached files to answer the next two questions 

 determine how you would leverage this model in your work environment (or a past or future work environment). 

  determine which phase is the most important. Determine three significant challenges to implementing this phase and how those challenges could be overcome. Provide specific examples to support your response. 

Behavioral Strategies and Observable Behaviors

Behavioral Strategies

Given a dominant paradigm, its related mental models, and the mindsets supporting the paradigm and

mental models, individuals, groups, and entire school systems begin to devise strategies for how to

behave within the dominant paradigms and about how to implement effectively their chosen mental

models. These strategies are devised to help educators and their school systems succeed within the

dominant paradigm by deciding about how they should work, when they should work, with whom they

should collaborate to do the work, and so on. These strategies, when implemented, create observable


Observable Behaviors

As individuals, groups, and entire school systems implement their behavioral strategies observable

behaviors are manifested. Ideally, these behaviors will be clearly and unequivocally aligned with the

dominant paradigm and mental models that govern the profession of education. These behaviors, when

manifested effectively, move school systems toward their paradigm-driven visions.

Observable behaviors can be seen, heard, interpreted, and evaluated by others. If the observed

behaviors are congruent with the four dominant paradigms and related mental models and with

mindsets that control the education profession and school systems, then the people manifesting the

observable behaviors are evaluated positively and rewarded. If their observed behaviors are not aligned

with the controlling paradigm, mental models, and mindsets, then these people are punished or

ignored; e.g., sometimes subtly as when an article is rejected for publication and sometimes in an

embarrassingly obvious ways like when a person is publicly denied an opportunity to serve on a

powerful committee.

Paradigm Shifting

Kuhn (1962) used the term “paradigm” to characterize significant changes in the hard sciences of his

time. He argued that scientific advancement is not evolutionary; rather, he believed scientific

advancement is a relatively peaceful journey punctuated by aggressive intellectual revolutions that

replace one world view with another (this view is also supported by Tushman, Newman, & Romanelli,

1986). In other words, a paradigm shift is a revolutionary change from one way of thinking (as

embedded in paradigms and mental models), believing (as reflected in mindsets) and doing (as reflected

in behavioral strategies and observable behaviors) to another way. It is a revolution or disruptive

transformation and it just does not happen on its own; rather, in the field of education it is being driven

by frame-breaking revolutionaries with a powerful and compelling vision for creating and sustaining a

new future for America’s school systems who are creating and nurturing powerful coalitions for

transformational change. 1 However, as I have argued, creating a paradigm shift is no easy feat and

doing so is analogous to trying to convince an entire religious community to shift to a new religion.

Paradigm Shifting Strategy

Let us say that we really want to create a true paradigm shift for the entire field of education. How

would we do that? I believe that the initial target of paradigm-shifting efforts must be the mindsets (or

attitudes) of educators. Our goal should be to motivate educators to open their minds to new

possibilities, to increase the malleability of their mindsets, and to introduce new ways of thinking,

believing, and doing. A process that might help to do that is visually depicted in Figure 3 and described


Phase 1: Prepare

Create simple, concrete, powerful, and compelling language to describe the four new paradigms and

their mental models. Create language that communicates to the heart and the head. Beware of the

curse of knowledge, as described earlier.

Construct descriptions of the four new paradigms using language that satisfies the following

communication principles (Heath & Heath, 2007):

Principle 1: Simplicity—language that is devoid of abstract terms and specialized jargon;

Principle 2: Unexpectedness—examples that take people by surprise;

Principle 3: Concreteness—examples and ideas that are down-to-earth and easy to understand;

Principle 4: Credibility—information that is backed by research or endorsed by those who have already

implemented the ideas;

Principle 5: Emotions—information presented in ways that appeals to peoples’ emotions and motivates

them to care about the ideas; and,

Principle 6: Stories—information shaped into the form of stories about the successful use of the ideas.

Design and test mental models that support the four new paradigms; e.g., since the instructional

paradigm advocated in this article focuses on customized, personalized learning experiences, design and

test ways to do this and ways to manage that process (e.g., design or adopt a learning management


Design the new mental models so they are cost-effective, simple to use, and do not make educators’

work lives harder.

Phase 2: Educate

Phase 1 focuses on preparing for Phase 2. The ultimate outcome of Phase 2 is to help educators expand

their mindsets. Mindset expansion is the absolute starting point for paradigm-change because before

shifting to a new paradigm educators first need to be “willing” to consider the new paradigm and its

supporting mental models. Being “willing” is a function of a mindset.

Provide educators with in-service opportunities to learn about the new paradigms and their related

mental models.

Demonstrate the effectiveness of the new mental models.

Provide access to other educators who are effectively using the new paradigms and their mental


Design and deliver educational activities that help educators learn about the philosophy, theories,

concepts, principles, and research underpinning the new paradigms and their mental models.

Phase 3: Adopt

Influence carefully selected school systems with the capacity to engage in transformational change to

adopt the new paradigms and their mental models on a small-scale (see Christensen, 2003; Christensen,

Johnson, & Horn, 2008). Design the implementation of these small-scale initiatives so they do not

compete with the dominant paradigm (see Christensen, Johnson & Horn, 2008) for an explanation of

why this non-compete principle is important). Design these initiatives so they will be successful.

Phase 4: Expand

Gradually expand the successful initiatives created for Phases 1 and 2 to include more programs within

each school systems with the goal of achieving a tipping point for the initiatives adopted in #9 so that

they will displace the old paradigms and their mental models.

Phase 5: Tip

Replicate the above process in an increasing number of school systems. Use educators from

transformed school districts as emissaries and advocates of the new paradigm and its mental models.

This action employs Gardner’s (2004) resonance lever.

Phase 6: Shift

Always keep in mind that the paradigm-shifting goal is to reach a tipping point in the field of education

(about 25% of all school systems) that will then trigger a cascade of school systems shifting rapidly to the

new paradigms, which will be perceived as a sudden and dramatic revolution in thinking, believing, and


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