23 Sep Understanding and applying psychology in ones everyday life can have numerous benefits and is often the basis of research that is conducted in this field. In this assignment, you will write
Hello everyone, I have an Assignment for you today. This assignment must be DONE by Tuesday, January 28, 2019, no later than 10 pm. By the way, I need this assignment to be PLAGIARISM FREE & a Spell Check when completed. Make sure you READ the instructions CAREFULLY. Now without further ado, the instructions to the assignments are below:
Understanding and applying psychology in one’s everyday life can have numerous benefits and is often the basis of research that is conducted in this field. In this assignment, you will write an essay requiring you to employ critical thinking as you contemplate the science of psychology.
You will write this essay from the perspective of a potential first-time researcher. Pretend you are pondering conducting research into the psychological aspects of a specific human behavior you have seen demonstrated in your everyday life (may be personal or work-related).
First, you should start with an introduction that allows the readers to fully understand your intent and the main points of the research you are contemplating. Be sure to identify your research question (e.g. Why do we yawn when we see someone else yawn?)
Next, include the following elements of your intended research:
- describe your vision of the research experiment,
- explain research methods that could be used to describe the behavior in your research experiment, and
- indicate the ethical guidelines you must follow while conducting research involving people.
Finally, in your own words, identify the basic ideas behind early approaches in psychology that may influence your research.
Your essay will be a minimum of two pages in length, double-spaced, and in Times New Roman 12 pt. font. Include your name and course at the top of the first page of your essay.
APA Style will not be required for this assignment. However, keep in mind that when directly quoted or paraphrased works of others are used in any manner, the writer is obligated to properly cite the source of the original narrative. You should become familiar with citing sources, as you will be graded on proper APA citation and reference formatting later in this course, and throughout your future academic endeavors.
By the way, I attached a study guide below to help with this assignment!
PSY 1010, General Psychology 1
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Trace the historical development of the psychology field. 1.1 Recall the history of the early pioneers in psychology. 1.2 Identify the basic ideas behind early approaches in psychology.
2. Recall research methodologies used in the field of psychology.
2.1 Define research methods used to describe behavior. 2.2 Indicate ethical guidelines for doing research with people.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Unit I Quiz Unit I Essay
Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Video: The Basics: Diverse Perspectives Unit I Essay
Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Video: Experiments: Independent vs. Dependent Variables Unit I Essay
2.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 1 Unit I Essay
Reading Assignment Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology A link to Chapter 1 of the eTextbook is provided in the Required Reading area of Unit I in Blackboard. View the following two videos in MyPsychLab. You can access the videos by clicking the link provided in the Required Reading area of Unit I in Blackboard. (You must be logged into Blackboard in order to access any MyPsychLab features.)
The Basics: Diverse Perspectives
Experiments: Independent vs. Dependent Variables
UNIT I STUDY GUIDE
The Science of Psychology
PSY 1010, General Psychology 2
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Have you ever pondered these questions or similar ones? Quite possibly have you longed to better understand why you or others behave in a certain manner and why your friends seem to be in direct conflict with your beliefs? Do you ever long to train your pet to obey certain commands? Rest assured, you are not alone. In this course, you will learn that the science of psychology has deeply seated roots. Mankind has longed to answer questions about the mind and behavior since the beginning of time, but the science of psychology as we know it, grounded in empirical research, has only been around for a little over a century. Yet still, developments in this complex field are constantly evolving. The study of psychology has vast importance. Not only are the findings from psychological research critically important to psychologists, but the implications are inherently paramount in a plethora of fields including health sciences, cancer research, education, and environmental studies, just to name a few. What Do You Already Know About Psychology? Take a few minutes for reflection on your personal thoughts, experiences, and understanding of psychological concepts before we delve into the history of psychology. People often opine that psychology is just all about common sense principles, but this is a fallacy. For example, many people are easily swayed by some popular talk show hosts that give wide-sweeping advice to individuals in a short, 45-minute television segment. Yes, it is important to examine what people do, but the science of psychology helps us to better ascertain the why as well. There is a survey on page 4 of your eTextbook to get you started with assessing what you already know about psychology. Regardless of your current foundation in or experience with psychology, this course will provide you with a fresh look at the basic concepts and foundations. It will provide you with a good starting point no matter how you will apply the science of psychology in your life or career.
Why does my friend behave like that when he is angry?
What is wrong with me? Why do I want to cry when I think of certain memories?
Why does Fido bark at the door when he needs to go potty?
My parents were callous and reserved. Does that mean I will have a hard time showing love to my own kids?
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Course Navigation Throughout this course, in addition to the required activities in the MyPsychLab, you will also have access to various videos and simulations in the lab that will enrich your psychology knowledge and course experience. These additional resources are designed to help you further examine the intricate science of psychology. It is highly recommended that you take the time to embrace the suggested reading material as well as the nongraded learning activities, as they will give you additional insight throughout this course. The Roots of the Science of Psychology As you read Chapter 1 in the eTextbook, you will learn that the basic tenets of psychology as a science can be traced back to a German researcher named Wilhelm Wundt (Ciccarelli & White, 2017). As you read about Wundt and his history with objective introspection—the task of examining one’s mental processes and thoughts—keep in mind that Wundt was not your typical researcher. Yes, the father of psychology originally struggled with academics, and he actually dropped out of high school at one point. However, his scholastic aptitude and accomplishments eventually evolved for the better, and he ended up as a top graduate in his medical school class. He went on to establish the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig. One of his famous students, Edward Titchener, would later bring many of Wundt’s research principles to America and further expound upon them by forging a new view. He called it structuralism, or examining the structure of one’s mind. Pay close attention to the information from this section. You will learn more about Margaret Washburn, the first woman recipient of a Ph.D. in psychology. Another important figure that you will examine in this unit is William James. Ciccarelli and White (2017) reveal that while Wundt is considered the father of psychology, James is known as the father of American psychology. In fact, William James had a very culturally rich and diverse childhood as he was educated in numerous private schools, but his fascination for areas such as religion and science were actually encouraged within his childhood home alongside his famous sibling, Henry James. Within this section, you will learn about William James’ influences from Charles Darwin. In essence, James’ work focused on how one’s mind functions in his or her everyday life while adapting to the environment, also known as functionalism. One of his famous students was Mary Whiton Calkins. Although she completed all of the requirements for a Ph.D. from Harvard University, she was denied such because she was not a man. The field of psychology has evolved over the years, much like the rest of history, but numerous important contributors have not always taken an easy path to gain respect. You will learn more about various minority researchers as well including Francis Cecil Sumner, Kenneth and Mamie Clark, and Jorge Sanchez, just to name a few.
Do you think minority
researchers have gained their equal time in the spotlight?
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Influential Approaches Further examination of the eTextbook by Ciccarelli and White (2017) will reveal foundational information related to Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, conditioning, and behaviorism. What do you think about each approach? Do you agree with Gestalt’s psychology proponents who purported that we do not break things down into parts, but rather perceive elements as a whole? In Figure 1, Gestalt’s closure principle suggests we will perceive a circle and a rectangle rather than a series of line segments.
On the other hand, you could possibly agree with whom Ciccarelli and White (2017) call the most famous individual associated with psychology— Sigmund Freud. In his theory of psychoanalysis, Freud argued that we often push certain thoughts, such as threatening desires, into our unconscious mind. As a neurologist, he believed the act of repressing these urges eventually manifested into nervous disorders as seen with his patients. You will learn more about many of his famous supporters including Alfred Adler and Carl Jung. Consequently, his daughter, Anna Freud, would also follow in his footsteps by doing research on the ego. What are your views about Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis? Do you think an individual can assist you in examining insight into your personal behaviors?
An additional approach to psychology as a science is related to Ivan Pavlov and is known as classical conditioning. Pavlov was a physiologist who postulated that a reflex could be generated by an unrelated stimulus, as seen in the illustration to the right. Read more about his research and reflect upon your own thoughts and experiences. Could these principles help you to garner better behaviors with your pets? Would they work on your children or spouse? John B. Watson’s behaviorism is another approach that you will examine. In essence, Watson argued that psychology, as a science, should center upon observable behaviors— what one can see and measure. Many of his beliefs were based on Pavlov’s work. Watson argued that one could use conditioning to shape behaviors. He and his colleague, Rosalie Rayner, conducted what is now known as the famous Little Albert experiment. What are your thoughts about their work? Were they justified in the name of science for conditioning Little Albert to fear rats, rabbits, and dogs?
Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning (Lacroix, n.d.)
Figure 1 Gestalt Perception
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Perspectives in Psychology No one perspective can fully explain all of our behaviors and processes. In fact, there are seven basic perspectives in psychology that relate to several areas including thought processing, cultural factors, biological aspects, and one’s goals, just to name a few. For instance, you will learn that the psychodynamic perspective is embraced by many therapists today. In essence, the focus is on the unconscious mind and how this influences our conscious behaviors. Furthermore, the behavioral perspective is still quite influential as well. B. F. Skinner actually extended the work of John B. Watson, and he is credited with coining the theory of operant conditioning, in which he purported that one’s voluntary behaviors could be learned or reinforced when associated with pleasurable circumstances. As part of this unit’s reading assignment, you will view the video Diverse Perspectives, in MyPsychLab. You can access the video directly from the link provided in the Unit I Required Reading area in Blackboard. This will provide you with a general overview of the seven modern perspectives in psychology. As with all videos you will watch in the MyPsychLab in this course, a closed captioning option is available directly on the video page. After viewing the video, consider what perspectives you relate to the most: psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, sociocultural, biopsychological, or evolutionary. Which ones would you say are more based on science? Which perspectives are more closely aligned with human behaviors? Would you agree that a more eclectic perspective—embracing bits and pieces of several views—is actually more feasible? Professions in Psychology As you continue your exploration of this unit, you will learn that numerous careers exist that relate to the field of psychology. If you are fascinated by the science of psychology, you should be pleased to know that Ciccarelli and White (2017) stress that becoming a psychologist is not your only career option. Would you consider pursuing a career as a psychiatrist so that you can diagnose and treat various disorders, or maybe you would enjoy working as a psychiatric social worker? (One usually only needs a master’s degree to attain this position.) Psychology is not only about having therapy sessions. Some individuals in this field perform other jobs such as conducting research, teaching, designing products, and crafting educational strategies, just to name a few.
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It Is All Science Based Do you ever go to the mall and people-watch as shoppers pass by? Have you ever attempted to predict their relationships with the individuals surrounding them? Quite possibly you have been guilty of judging some of the food court customers based on their selection of fast food? We have all been guilty of such actions in various settings, but true psychology centers upon uncovering facts while attempting to reduce numerous uncertainties and unwarranted biases. Within this unit, you will learn that psychology is actually grounded in the scientific approach. A sound researcher will seek to discover what truly exists, and he or she will not be swayed by personal beliefs or opinions. Ciccarelli and White (2017) shed light on the goals related to psychology and the steps in the scientific approach. Pay close attention to each step described as they are all inherently important. Once you have gleaned the information on the scientific approach, it is imperative that you examine the methods that are used to describe behavior. Ciccarelli and White (2017) provide foundational information related to the types of methods used by researchers. For instance, have you ever gone to the food court at the mall and watched teens interacting with each other? (This would be considered a form of naturalistic observation as you are viewing people in their typical environment.) On the other hand, it is not always possible, nor feasible, to observe people or animals in their natural environments. This is when laboratory observations are often embraced. (Although an artificial environment has been created, it does give the researcher a little bit more control.) In the chapter reading, you will examine the types of descriptive methods that are used to characterize behaviors. In research, it is inherently important that those behaviors are examined in depth to ascertain if patterns or relationships exist. This is what researchers refer to as a correlation. However, if the researcher truly seeks to determine the cause for behaviors, he or she must design an experiment so that he or she can manipulate the variable that is potentially changing the behavior. This will involve an independent and dependent variable. This will be explored in the video Independent vs. Dependent Variables in the Required Reading for this unit. (The video can be accessed in the Required Reading area of Unit I in Blackboard.) As you read more, you will learn that it is important to have two groups in an experiment: the experimental group (receives exposure to the independent variable) and the control group (usually receives no treatment). When conducting research, it is important to randomly assign the participants to the groups. However, problems can still occur even under the most ideal conditions. Ciccarelli and White (2017) share important information related to the placebo effect (expectations can influence behavior) and the experimenter effect (the researcher’s expectations can influence the results). As you conclude your exploration of this section, pay close attention to the information related to ways to avoid these effects: single-blind studies and double- blind studies.
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As you conclude your studies for this unit, you will learn more about the ethical guidelines related to research. Do you remember Little Albert’s experiment? Did you think the researchers were justified in their actions in the name of science? If you were Albert’s parent, what would be your response? Ciccarelli and White (2017) explain that several ethical guidelines, which must be followed by researchers today, have been established by the American Psychological Association (APA). For instance, participants’ rights and safety must always be valued. The researcher must explain the study in enough detail so that the participant can embrace an informed decision. Only in justifiable instances can deception ever be utilized. Additionally, a participant must be allowed to study the case at any time. All data collected should remain confidential as well. What are your thoughts about the remaining guidelines? Do you think the participants are adequately protected under these auspices? Did you realize it is important to think critically about critical thinking? Chapter 1 in the eTextbook briefly discusses how psychology is applicable to our daily lives. In fact, we embrace critical thinking and make sound decisions on a daily basis, quite often without realizing it. However, we sometimes consciously or subconsciously avoid thinking critically. What about you? What conditions could cause you to avoid critical thinking?
References Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2017). Psychology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson. Dolmatov, M. (n.d.). Funny cartoon businessman thinking, ID 112755684 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Golan, B. (n.d.). Sigmund Freud cartoon, ID 68134050 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Iqoncept. (n.d.). What do you think survey poll question, ID 20602105 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Lacroix, A. (n.d.). Conditioning, ID 53878514 [Illustration]. Retrieved from https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-
illustration-conditioning-classical-as-shown-pavlov-s-dog-experiment-image53878514 Temsakun, N. (n.d.). Word cloud text background concept, ID 83162790 [Graphic]. Retrieved from
Could some research be considered as necessary cruelty?
Should there be guidelines established to
prevent mistreatment of subjects, both human and animal?
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Suggested Reading Is your cellphone always turned on and at your fingertips? Should psychoanalysts do more to examine this phenomenon? Read the following article in the CSU Online Library to learn more. Cain, W. (2018). #PsychoanalysisAndCellphones. Psycho-Analytic Psychotherapy in South Africa, 26(1), 1–
29. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/apps/doc/A541103482/AONE?u=oran9 5108&sid=AONE&xid=a7513a46
For a review of this unit’s concepts, you are encouraged to view the PowerPoint presentation for the chapter reading by clicking on either of the links provided below. Click here for the Chapter 1 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF of the presentation. View the videos below in MyPsychLab by clicking on the link provided in the Suggested Reading area of Unit I in Blackboard. They will give you further insight into the work of a psychologist and the many areas of specialty in the profession.
Thinking Like a Psychologist: Thinking Critically
Psychological Professionals and Their Area of Specialization
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. In the Nongraded Learning Activities area of Unit I in Blackboard, you will find MyPsychLab links to access the following resources. They can help you to assess your understanding of this unit’s concepts.
Study the Flashcards: Chapter 1
Test Yourself: Chapter 1: On pages 42-43 of the eTextbook, there is a Test Yourself section. You can take the quiz to assess your understanding of the chapter material.