Chat with us, powered by LiveChat What are the advantages of developing a website using a tool such as Artisteer or Joomla? Are there any disadvantages. Explain? ? Linux is a free and stable operating system, which is | EssayAbode

What are the advantages of developing a website using a tool such as Artisteer or Joomla? Are there any disadvantages. Explain? ? Linux is a free and stable operating system, which is


What are the advantages of developing a website using a tool such as Artisteer or Joomla? Are there any disadvantages. Explain?


Linux is a free and stable operating system, which is a great advantage. What are the disadvantages of adopting it?


Give three reasons why Linux has become a popular server operating system.


Define Software Piracy. How if affect the software industry. Mention several forms of Software piracy. What is function of BSA and SIIA.


Define a ready-made software. What are the main elements to consider when purchasing ready-made software for an organization?


What is multimedia? What are the different media in multimedia?

Give five examples of how this technology can be used in training, customer service, and education.


What is VoIP? If you were a business owner, what factors would you consider to be important in order to switch to VoIP for your phone system?


What risks to organizations does the growing use of networks pose?


Explain the most important types of networks. (LANs, MANs, WANs, and PANs)


What are the technical advantages of optical fibers over other communications media?


Would an astronomy observatory 20 miles away from a city or town likely be able to get DSL service? Why?


What is BPL? Why is the technology potentially available to almost every home?

Kenneth J. Sousa Effy Oz



SYSTEMS Seventh Edition

Chapter 5

Business Software

© Cengage Learning 2015


• Explain the difference between application

software and system software

• Enumerate the different generations of

programming languages and explain how they


• Cite the latest major developments in application

and system software

• Identify and explain the roles of Web

programming languages

© Cengage Learning 2015 2

Objectives (cont'd.)

• Explain the types and uses of Web site design


• Clarify the differences between proprietary

software and open source software

• List characteristics that are important in

evaluating packaged software applications for

business use

• Understand the problem of software piracy and

how it affects businesses and consumers

© Cengage Learning 2015 3

Software: Instructions to the Hardware

• Applications: computer programs that

contribute to productivity

• Software: a series of instructions to a computer

to execute processes

• Two major categories of software:

– Application software: enables task completion

– System software:

• Enables applications to run on a computer

• Manages components and devices

© Cengage Learning 2015 4

Programming Languages

and Software Development Tools

• Programs are needed for every computer


• Programming: process of writing programs

• Machine language: the only language that

hardware understands

– Consists of long strings of 0s and 1s

• Assembly language: easier to program than

machine language using “words” for commands

• High-level programming languages: use English-

like statements © Cengage Learning 2015 5

Programming Languages and Software

Development Tools (cont'd.)

• Software development kits (SDKs): tools to

develop software with little knowledge of

programming languages

• Third-generation languages (3GLs): known as

“procedural” languages

– Programmer must detail logical procedure

– Includes languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN,

BASIC, RPG, Pascal, and C

– One 3GL statement = five to ten assembly

language statements

© Cengage Learning 2015 6

Programming Languages and Software

Development Tools (cont'd.)

• Fourth-generation languages (4GLs): use more

English-like statements

– Speed up the development process

– Built around database management systems

– Include many preprogrammed procedures

– One 4GL statement = several 3GL statements

– Structured Query Language (SQL) is an example

• Debugging: process of locating and fixing

program errors

© Cengage Learning 2015 7

© Cengage Learning 2015 8

Figure 5.1 The evolution of programming languages © Cengage Learning 2015

© Cengage Learning 2015 9

Figure 5.2 Advantages and disadvantages of using higher-level programming languages © Cengage Learning 2015

Visual Programming

• Visual programming languages: create

graphical screen objects by selecting icons from

a palette

• Common visual programming languages

– Microsoft Visual Basic

– Embarcadero Delphi

– Micro Focus COBOL

– ASNA Visual RPG

– Visual C++

• Developer can still work at the code level © Cengage Learning 2015 10

Object-Oriented Programming

• Object-oriented programming (OOP)

languages provide a modular approach to


• Advantages:

– Ease of maintenance

– Efficiency in application development

• Object: contains data elements (data members)

and the methods to manipulate that data

– Data members can only be accessed through the

object’s methods

© Cengage Learning 2015 11

© Cengage Learning 2015 12

Figure 5.3 Advantages of object-oriented programming (OOP) over procedural languages © Cengage Learning 2015

Object-Oriented Programming (cont'd.)

• Objects are reusable and are combined to

create complex programs

• Popular OOP languages include Java, C++/C#,

and Visual Basic

• Increasing amount of software developed for the

Web using languages such as Java, JavaScript,

and PHP

• Applet: code produced by a Web programming


– Runs same way on different operating systems

© Cengage Learning 2015 13

Language Translation:

Compilers and Interpreters

• Source code: program as originally written by

the developer

• Object code: program in machine language that

can be run by the computer

• Types of programming language translators

– Compilers

– Interpreters

© Cengage Learning 2015 14

Language Translation:

Compilers and Interpreters (cont'd.)

• Compiler: translates entire source code to

object code but does not execute the code

– Scans for syntax errors

– Generates error messages if syntax errors found

• Interpreter: scans one statement at a time

– If error-free, interprets and executes the


– Goes through the program until an error or end of

program is encountered

© Cengage Learning 2015 15

© Cengage Learning 2015 16

Figure 5.5 A compiler converts higher-level language code (source code) into machine language (object

code), which the computer can execute © Cengage Learning 2015

Application Software

• Application software allows nonprogrammers to

develop their own tools

• Application-specific software: programs

designed to perform specific jobs

• General-purpose application software:

programs that serve multiple purposes

– Usually comes as packaged software

• Packaged software: software that is ready to

install from external storage media such as CDs

© Cengage Learning 2015 17

Office Productivity Applications

• Productivity tools assist normal office work

– Include word processors, spreadsheets,

presentation tools, file/database software,

graphics programs, desktop publishing tools, etc.

• Word processors create text documents

• Spreadsheets store numbers and perform

complex mathematical, statistical, and financial

analysis functions

© Cengage Learning 2015 18

Office Productivity Applications (cont'd.)

• Presentation tools develop impressive

presentations quickly

• File/database management tools create and

manipulate local or shared databases

• Graphics programs create intricate graphical

images and manipulate digital photographs

• Desktop publishing tools develop items for

publication, such as pamphlets, newsletters,

cards, calendars, etc.

© Cengage Learning 2015 19

Office Productivity Applications (cont'd.)

• Project management tools help plan projects

and track progress

• Suite: collection of various applications that

perform multiple interrelated functions

– Examples include Microsoft Office, IBM Lotus

SmartSuite, and the free Apache

© Cengage Learning 2015 20

Hypermedia and Multimedia

• Hypermedia: a feature that enables users to

access information by clicking text or graphics

• Web authoring tools enable hypermedia


– Often part of other applications such as word

processors and presentation tools

© Cengage Learning 2015 21

Hypermedia and Multimedia (cont'd.)

• Multimedia software handles many different

types of data

• Often used in:

– Education: lessons presented in multimedia

– Research: data compiled and integrated

– Training exercises: simulated real-world situations

– Business situations: compound documents filed

and used electronically; and interactive websites

© Cengage Learning 2015 22

Hypermedia and Multimedia (cont'd.)

• Mashup: an integrated application containing

some or all features from several applications

– Provides enhanced features for the end user

© Cengage Learning 2015 23

Web Site Design Tools

• Used to develop and change the content of Web


• Popular packages include

– Microsoft SharePoint Designer and Expression

Web, Avanquest WebEasy Professional, and

Adobe CS2/Dreamweaver

• Newer software enables websites implemented

using a blog environment

© Cengage Learning 2015 24


• An application that enables sharing of ideas and

information resources among group members

– Supports real-time collaboration via web


– Allows for remote collaboration

– Eliminates travel times and facilitates expression

and exchange of ideas

• Examples: Wiggio and Google Drive

© Cengage Learning 2015 25

3D Geographic Software

• Used to develop three-dimensional models of

geographic locations

• Models are created from land and aerial


• Helps with navigation when tied to global

positioning system software

• Can create virtual existing tangible items or

create new ones

© Cengage Learning 2015 26

System Software

• System software: deals with essential operations

between the user and computer such as:

– Loading, copying, and deleting files

– Managing memory resources

– Operating peripheral equipment

– Encompasses compilers and interpreters

• Applications must be compatible with system


© Cengage Learning 2015 27

Operating Systems

• Operating system (OS): most important

program on the computer

– Recognizes input from keyboard and mouse

– Sends output to computer display

– Keeps track of files and directories

– Runs applications

– Manages memory

• Usually developed using low-level programming

languages such as assembly languages

• Also known as “platforms” © Cengage Learning 2015 28

© Cengage Learning 2015 29

Figure 5.6 The operating system mediates the computer system’s resources and application software as

well as controls peripheral and network devices © Cengage Learning 2015

Operating Systems (cont'd.)

• Application program interfaces (APIs):

software included in the OS that can be used by

application program developers

© Cengage Learning 2015 30

Operating Systems (cont'd.)

• OS’s position in the computer’s logical operation

– User interacts with user interface using menus,

icons, and application commands

– Application converts user input into commands

– OS commands the CPU to carry out the operation

– OS allows applications to use the CPU, memory,

input and output devices, and the file system

• Utilities perform other OS functions, e.g.,

hardware diagnostics, file comparison, and file


© Cengage Learning 2015 31

© Cengage Learning 2015 32

Figure 5.7 Computer systems operate on a number of layers, beginning with the user interface and moving

into the computer’s hardware © Cengage Learning 2015

Operating Systems (cont'd.)

• OS must manage the system by allocating

hardware resources to applications

• OS provides several services, including:

– User interface

– Memory allocation, including the use of virtual

memory (hard disk used as an extension of


– Plug-and-play (PnP): recognize and run a device

as soon as it is physically attached

© Cengage Learning 2015 33

Operating Systems (cont'd.)

• Driver: software that enables OS to control a


• Additional OS services include:

– Database management

– Networking

– Security

© Cengage Learning 2015 34

Operating Systems (cont'd.)

• Different computers and types of

microprocessors use different OSs

• Popular PC operating systems

– Windows

– Linux

– Mac OS

• OSs for mobile environments used with

smartphones and tablets

• OSs noted for stability include UNIX, Mac OS X,

and Linux © Cengage Learning 2015 35

© Cengage Learning 2015 36

Figure 5.8 Popular operating systems for various hardware platforms © Cengage Learning 2015

© Cengage Learning 2015 37

Figure 5.8 (cont’d.) Popular operating systems for various hardware platforms © Cengage Learning 2015

Other System Software

• Other types of system software include:

– Compilers and interpreters

– Communications software

– Utilities

– Database management systems

• Communications software supports transmission

and reception of data across computer networks

• Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and

other programs that detect and remove

unwanted files and applications © Cengage Learning 2015 38

Open Source Software

• Proprietary software: sold/licensed for profit

– Source code is private and not available

– Developer retains all rights to the software; user

purchases a license to use the software

• Open source software: free source code

– Developed through voluntary collaboration of


– Reviewed by many programmers → fewer bugs

• Examples includes Mozilla Firefox, Drupal,

MySQL, PERL, and suite

© Cengage Learning 2015 39

Open Source Software (cont'd.)

• Linux: best known open source OS

– Includes free versions and versions that charge

for support and additional features

– Disadvantage: limited number of applications that

run on it

– Popular because of its stability and versatility

• Runs on mainframes, PCs, handhelds, and

electronic devices

© Cengage Learning 2015 40

Software Licensing

• Software is usually licensed

• Licensed software: provides limited permission

to use the software

– Time-limited license requires annual fees

© Cengage Learning 2015 41

Software Licensing

• Software licensing models

– Permissive model: anyone can use and sell

modified versions of the software

– General Public License (GPL): anyone can use

and make modified versions, but cannot sell

modified versions for profit

– Proprietary: code is owned by someone who has

the right to sell or license it to us

© Cengage Learning 2015 42

Software as a Service (SaaS)

• Provides application software developed and

maintained by a third-party provider

– Offered to organizations for a recurring fee

• Third-party provider: also referred to as

application service provider (ASP)

– Develops and maintains the software on their


– Provides maintenance, support, and hardware


© Cengage Learning 2015 43

Considerations for Packaged Software

• Factors when purchasing large software

packages are complex, including:

– Cost

– Time to implement

– Cost of interrupting operations

– Modification costs to customize the software

© Cengage Learning 2015 44

© Cengage Learning 2015 45

Figure 5.9 Sample software evaluation form © Cengage Learning 2015

© Cengage Learning 2015 46

Figure 5.9 (cont’d.) Sample software evaluation form © Cengage Learning 2015


• Software: a collective term for computer


• Two categories of software: system or


• Programming languages and software

development tools are used to develop software

• Increasing amount of software is linked to the


• Code written in non-machine language must be

translated by compilers or interpreters

© Cengage Learning 2015 47

Summary (cont'd.)

• Some application programs are custom-

designed; many are packaged

• Office productivity tools such as word

processors and spreadsheets help improve

worker efficiency

• Hypermedia and multimedia technology are

useful for training, education, research, and


© Cengage Learning 2015 48

Summary (cont'd.)

• Groupware combines hypermedia and

multimedia with web technologies for


• Three-dimensional geographic software helps

model maps and locations

• Many applications support web services and

access to information on the web

• Most important system software is operating


© Cengage Learning 2015 49

Summary (cont'd.)

• Open source software is distributed freely via the


• Nearly all software is licensed; SaaS is an

alternative to traditional software licensing

• Ready-made software purchase decisions

should evaluate many factors, e.g., suitability,

ease of learning, ease of use, vendor reputation,

expected quality of vendor support, etc.

• Software piracy is still a significant problem

© Cengage Learning 2015 50


Kenneth J. Sousa Effy Oz



SYSTEMS Seventh Edition

Chapter 6

Business Networks and


© Cengage Learning 2015


• Describe business and home applications of

digital telecommunications

• Identify the major media and devices used in


• Explain the concept of network protocols

• Compare and contrast various networking and

Internet services

© Cengage Learning 2015 2

Objectives (cont'd.)

• List networking technologies and trends that are

likely to have an impact on businesses and

information management in the near future

• Discuss the pros and cons of telecommuting

© Cengage Learning 2015 3

Telecommunications in Business

• Telecommunications: the transmittal of data and

information from one point to another

– Allows communications over large distances

• Telephone, e-mail, and the web rely on fast,

reliable telecommunications

• Networking technologies have brought about

several improvements to business processes

© Cengage Learning 2015 4

Telecommunications in Business (cont'd.)

• Telecommunications-supported improvements

– Business communication, including e-mail, voice

mail, instant messaging, faxing, file transfer,

mobile telephony, and teleconferencing

– Greater efficiency: information delivery is

immediate and not constrained by geographical


– Better distribution of data: central storage with

both local and remote access

© Cengage Learning 2015 5