Chat with us, powered by LiveChat What optional content did you choose to review and why? How has the content reviewed expanded your understanding of the unit/module topic? In what ways does it connect to your chosen major whi | EssayAbode

What optional content did you choose to review and why? How has the content reviewed expanded your understanding of the unit/module topic? In what ways does it connect to your chosen major whi

Directions: 

Choose 3 or more of the optional readings or videos provided with Modules 14 – 15 to review. After reviewing them answer the following questions

What optional content did you choose to review and why?

How has the content reviewed expanded your understanding of the unit/module topic?

In what ways does it connect to your chosen major which is (Business Administration) or other courses you may be taking?

Posts should be at least 300 words.

use this link and the file that I upload.

SWU 171 Intro to Social Work Dr. Hilary Haseley, PhD, MSW, ACUE

Overview

Chapter 12

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

2

Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Criminal justice system: A large network of organizations (e.g., courts, police departments, prisons, jails, probation agencies) dedicated to the enforcement of laws and the administration of justice

Crime: An act or behavior that is prohibited by criminal law and punishable by negative sanctions (e.g., probation, fine, jail term)

Laws: Legislative acts passed at local, state, and federal levels by corresponding political entities to define and regulate acceptable and unacceptable behavior and action

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Criminals: People who have been found guilty and as a result are classified as having committed a crime

Subject to biases of people who influence the writing, enacting, and enforcing of laws

Based on assumptions about right and wrong

Challenging and controversial area of practice for many social workers

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Types of Crimes:

Misdemeanor: Relatively minor crimes (e.g., traffic violations) that are punishable by a fine and a small amount of time

Felony: Serious crimes (e.g., murder) that are punishable by extended imprisonment and sometimes death

Classifications of crime

Violent crimes: Crimes against people that involve the use of force or threatened force

Robbery: Stealing from another person

Aggravated assault: Attacking another person physically

Rape: Sexual penetration through the use of force

Homicide: Illegally causing the death of another person

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Classifications of crime

Violent crimes: Crimes against people that involve the use of force or threatened force

Robbery: Stealing from another person

Aggravated assault: Attacking another person physically

Rape: Sexual penetration through the use of force

Homicide: Illegally causing the death of another person

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Types of Crimes

Property crimes: Crimes involving the taking of money or property

Larceny: Stealing of property

Arson: Malicious burning of property

Burglary: Breaking into a house or building to steal

Victimless crimes: Illegal acts that (arguably) do not have a readily identifiable victim, such as gambling

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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on behalf of a corporation and with its support

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Hate crimes: Crimes that involve intimidation and the intent to hurt people based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, ability differences, and other forms of diversity; these include the use of verbal threats, acts of violence, fear, physical attack, and explosives

https://www.matthewshepard.org/

https://www.congress.gov/bill/105th-congress/senate-bill/1529#:~:text=Hate%20Crimes%20Prevention%20Act%20of%201998%20-%20Amends,is%20in%20or%20affects%20interstate%20or%20foreign%20commerce.

White-collar crimes: Acts that occur in the course of employment or normal work activities, such as fraud or theft

Corporate criminals: People who commit crimes on behalf of a corporation and with its support

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

The Contextual Nature of Crime

Laws change over time and from place to place (e.g., prohibition, same sex marriage, weed)

Crimes are perceived differently depending on the criminal (e.g., criminal vs. juvenile delinquent, race)

People with resources may be able to avoid convictions and consequences others cannot

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

The Correctional System

Probation is given in lieu of imprisonment and carries requirements like community service, treatment, regular reporting, and/or drug testing

Parole is early release from prison under certain conditions; violations may result in reimprisonment

Prison is a last-resort option that is quite expensive; incarceration costs over $26,000 per year per prisoner

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Juvenile Justice and Corrections

Juveniles (people under 18) are viewed differently;

Emancipated adults are under 18 but recognized as independent by the court

Status offenses are crimes due to the individual’s age, meaning that they would not be criminal offenses for adults (e.g., underage drinking)

Juvenile offenses impact not just the juvenile, but their families and communities

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Central Concepts in Criminal Justice and Crime

Diversion programs: Programs designed to help offenders address behaviors and problems contributing to an arrest with the goal of preventing subsequent criminal activity

Juvenile corrections: Intervention, services, and programs for minors as a result of their involvement in the criminal justice system and courts

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Conflicting Attitudes about Those Who Commit Crimes

Attitudes toward Punishment

Conflicting values regarding criminal justice

Need for transgressors to take individual responsibility

Need for society to punish behaviors that violate laws and norms

Attitudes toward punishment

Intended functions of the correctional system

Social protection: Only temporary protects society, as people may commit more crimes once released from jail, especially if they’re lacking support needed to succeed outside of jail

Deterrence: Based on the idea that fear of punishment will prevent future criminal activity but it’s not clear if this is the reality

Rehabilitation: There are too few rehabilitation programs so many people are released from prison without having addressed the underlying factors associated with their incarceration

Retribution: Based on the belief that penalty or punishment should match the severity of the crime

Our criminal justice system focuses more on retribution

The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other country

As a result, jails and prisons are overcrowded

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Conflicting Attitudes about Those Who Commit Crimes

Attitudes Toward Rehabilitation

Recidivism is very high in part because reintegration is difficult

Being labeled as a criminal makes it difficult to find a well-paying job after release

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System

Forensic social work: Application of a social work outlook to legal issues and litigation

Include evaluations, counseling, mediation, probation/parole services, correctional services, domestic violence services, and more

Aims to correct imbalances and injustices within the justice system and to analyze the social factors that lead to crime

National organization of forensic social work: A nationally recognized professional organization dedicated to the advancement of education in forensic social work

https://www.nofsw.org/

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System

Social Work Values Regarding Criminal Justice

Prevention—Should be the first goal

Justice—Advocating for fair and equitable access to info, services, resources

Dignity—Treating people with respect and taking into account their challenges

Best practices and quality services—Legal representation and rehabilitation services must be available

Restorative justice—Acknowledging guilt and performing restitution

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System

Interactions with the Criminal Justice System

Police

Police officers: Sworn and authorized officers recognized by local, state, county, or federal authorities to enforce and uphold laws

Includes city officers, county sheriffs, state highway patrol officers, and federal enforcement agents

Varying policing approaches

Broken windows: Maintained that smaller problems in communities of color lead to a breakdown of public order and the rise of more serious crimes

Community policing: Suggests that police officers must develop trust and respect in communities being served

May work closely with social workers, especially with child neglect and abuse investigations

Police officers are increasingly being scrutinized for racial bias and racial profiling

There are additional concerns about police force with disabled individuals

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Social Workers and the Criminal Justice System

Courts

Judges and magistrates: Attorneys elected or appointed to lead and rule over court and its processes

Courts don’t have the capacity to hear all cases, which may lead to plea bargaining, or a negotiation with the prosecution for a reduced charge or sentence

Attorneys

Prosecutors: An attorney representing a government entity and arguing that the accused is guilty

Defense attorney represents the accused and argues their innocence

Corrections officers

Hired to oversee inmates and maintain order

Enforce jail and prison rules among inmates

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Contemporary Criminal Justice Topics for Social Workers

Victim Assistance Programs

Perpetrators and victims (the term survivor is often preferred)

Aiding survivors of crime through the legal process as an advocate

Restorative justice principle applies here as well

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Contemporary Criminal Justice Topics for Social Workers

Deviant Behavior and Social Status

Criminality of a behavior is based on social norms, which may shift

Welfare fraud is often more reviled than much more destructive corporate crimes

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Contemporary Criminal Justice Topics for Social Workers

Mental Health and Criminal Justice

Many people in jail/prison have mental illnesses and their behavior has been criminalized

Mental health options need to be available in communities to help reduce crime and recidivism

https://www.azdhs.gov/az-state-hospital/index.php

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Contemporary Criminal Justice Topics for Social Workers

Issues Affecting Children and Youth

Exposure and desensitization to violent behavior

Repeated exposure to violence can cause desensitization

This can lead to greater proclivities toward violence as well as decreased fear about dangerous acts

Exposure to violent media has been a concern of social work as well

Parental imprisonment

Effects on children include loss, trauma, embarrassment, frustration, stigma, and more

Children need to be reassured they are not at fault

https://nicic.gov/projects/children-of-incarcerated-parents

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Diversity and Criminal Justice

Class

Poor people are more likely arrested and imprisoned because they are more likely to be caught and not to have the resources to fight conviction

Social workers advocate for quality legal services for all

Policing, the court system, and incarceration take a heavy toll on economically challenged communities

Different legal system and court experience for people of high social-economic status

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Diversity and Criminal Justice

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Victims of hate crime often feel stigmatized and may be unsure whether to report

Women are more likely to be victims of crime

They are less likely to report rape in rural areas

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Diversity and Criminal Justice

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Gender disparities in the criminal justice system

Population of women in prison is increasing, including pregnant women

Maternal and infant health must be properly addressed in correctional settings

Human trafficking particularly targets women

Social workers can challenge the patriarchal status quo to give victims a voice

Social workers can help to advocate for proper treatment of LGBTQ+ citizens and work to eliminate barriers to their reporting of crime victimization

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Diversity and Criminal Justice

Race

African Americans have higher arrest and incarceration rates

They also see the CJ system quite differently than Whites, impacting interactions with that system

Skepticism and concern about police is not the same as being antipolice

Ethnicity

African Americans and Latin Americans are overrepresented in crime rates

Whites and Asian Americans (“the model minority”) are underrepresented

Asian American and White criminals are also punished less severely than other groups

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Diversity and Criminal Justice

Age

Crimes peak in teen years and decline rapidly thereafter

Developmental issues influence criminal behavior among the young

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Dynamic Advocacy and Criminal Justice

Economic and Social Justice

The poor need advocacy for their rights to be respected

Cannot afford quality legal representation, increasing risk of conviction

Accused people with mental illnesses must be properly assessed to stand trial

The poor must be treated humanely in correctional facilities

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Dynamic Advocacy and Criminal Justice

Supportive Environment

Healthy living environments help discourage criminal behavior

Crime and gangs go together in low-income neighborhoods

Social workers can engage in prevention activities aimed at reducing criminal behavior in at-risk areas

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Dynamic Advocacy and Criminal Justice

Human Needs and Rights

Social workers need to change laws.

Social workers need to seek to change/advance laws that benefit clients and help all people

Advocacy is about what the clients state as their needs, not what the social worker believes the client’s needs are

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Dynamic Advocacy and Criminal Justice

Political Access

Advocacy for criminals is often unpopular with politicians

Criminals may lose voting rights and feel they have no voice in the political process

Politicians are loath to approve funding for programs aimed at helping people convicted of crimes

Gun access is expanding in many states despite concerns about crime

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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SWU 171 Intro to social work dr. Hilary Haseley, phd, msw, acue

1

Military Social Work

Nearly all social workers will likely assist service members in some capacity and context

Multiple health, mental health, and social challenges for service members

US Department of Veterans Affairs is the largest employer of MSWs in the United States

Service member: Preferred term instead of soldier; universal term for those currently serving in the armed forces

Increasing behavioral health care from social workers following World War II

Programs offered by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

https://www.va.gov/

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Military social work

Conscription: forced military service

Or draft

US military has been all-volunteer since 1973

Educational benefits subsidy as large as $60,000, Post 9/11 GI Bill, for 4 years

More interventions and long-term care for service members

Author, Title and Edition. © 20XX SAGE Publishing.

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Deployment

Deployment: Action of systematically stationing military persons or forces over an area or moving forces within an area of military operation

Can be difficult on the service member along with their families

Deployment lengths: usually between 6 and 12 months

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Reintegration

Reintegration: Resumption of age, gender, and culturally appropriate roles in the family, community, and workplace

May be a time of difficulty and personal stress

Support is needed for military service members during reintegration

https://youtu.be/o9C6-efftuE

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Military Culture

Incorporates unity, a sense of purpose and direction, and values

Uniform Code of Military Justice governs military behavior and morality

Department of Defense (DoD): HQ of all six branches of the military

https://www.defense.gov/

Hierarchy and bureaucracy are the norm

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Military Culture

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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15-2 Understand military culture, values, and beliefs.

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Military Culture

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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15-2 Understand military culture, values, and beliefs.

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Military Culture

Four distinct pillars of military culture

Strict discipline

Loyalty and self-sacrifice

Ceremonies and rituals used to solidify common identities

Emphasis on cohesion

Common reasons for joining

Identification with warrior mentality

Family legacy

Benefits of military life

Escape from difficult situations at home

Exposure to military service during school

Strong predictor of enlistment rates

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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Military Culture

Veterans: Active duty, discharged, retired, or reserve military members

Status conferred after receiving a general and honorable discharge

Benefits from status

https://benefits.va.gov/benefits/

Cox, Introduction to Social Work, 3e. © 2022 SAGE Publishing.

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