Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Discuss what you have learned about memory and the issue of eyewitness recall and identification. Would you as a member of a jury convict a defendant solely based upon eyewitness testimon | EssayAbode

Discuss what you have learned about memory and the issue of eyewitness recall and identification. Would you as a member of a jury convict a defendant solely based upon eyewitness testimon

Discuss what you have learned about memory and the issue of eyewitness recall and identification. Would you as a member of a jury convict a defendant solely based upon eyewitness testimony? Why or why not? 

SHORT RESPONSE

Learning Objectives: By the end of this presentation, you will be able to…

describe Loftus’ studies demonstrating how the power of suggestion plays a role in the misinformation effect and in creating false memories.

describe the history of unintentional memory manipulation in therapy; describe how memories might be intentionally manipulated to change present maladaptive behavior.

describe findings from the innocence project on the nature and rates of errors in eyewitness testimony.

describe cognitive processes that contribute to eyewitness error and how police procedures inadvertently capitalized on these processes.

Our Fallible Memories

I. The Power of Suggestion

A. To Alter Memories: The Misinformation Effect

Loftus & Palmer (1974)

B. To Create Memories: False Memories

Lost in the Shopping Mall

False Memories of Traumatic Events

C. To Alter Present Maladaptive Behavior: Better Parenting Though Lies

D. Meet the Expert: Elizabeth Loftus

Our Fallible Memories

I. The Power of Suggestion

II. Errors in Eyewitness Testimony

A. Demo G. Wells’ Bomber On the Roof

B. nature and rates of error (from the innocence project)

C. cognitive processes that contribute to eyewitness error

error at perception & attention: weapons focus

Our Fallible Memories

Weapons Focus (Stanny & Johnson, 2000)

I. The Power of Suggestion

II. Errors in Eyewitness Testimony

A. Demo G. Wells’ Bomber On the Roof

B. nature and rates of error (from the innocence project)

C. cognitive processes that contribute to eyewitness error

error at perception & attention: weapons focus

error due to source monitoring: “sixpack” fosters familiarity at lineup

errors due to suggestion: assuming the perpetrator is present

errors due to construction: filling-in-the-blanks

D. Meet the Expert: Scott Fraser

Our Fallible Memories

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Learning Objectives: By the end of this presentation, you will be able to…

describe the various sources of information from which memories are constructed; identify the source responsible for constructing memory in Barlett’s “War of the Ghosts” study

explain how source misattribution in Jacoby’s “Famous Overnight Experiment” illustrates that memory is constructed from various sources.

define and describe the relationships among: expectations, schema, script and stereotype; explain how the “Office” and “Rumor” Studies demonstrate the role of expectancies in memory construction.

discuss memory construction in the broader context of challenges the mind must overcome and identify implication for false memories and confidence

Constructing Memories

I. Introduction

A. Createmem Astound Demo

B. A Classic Illustration: Bartlett’s (1932) “War of the Ghosts” Experiment

British participants read a Canadian Indian folktale…

over a period of time (up to 6 years), participants repeated the tale and the content of their repeated reproductions was analyzed.

Results: The participants remembered the gist of the story but made changed unfamiliar parts of the story to fit their own cultural expectations. E.g…

Constructing Memories

I. Introduction

A. Createmem Astound Demo

B. A Classic Illustration: Bartlett’s (1932) “War of the Ghosts” Experiment

C. Memory Construction Occurs With Each “Retrieval” (a misnomer) By Combining Info From Various Sources …

the original event

knowledge and expectations about such events

post-event information

Constructing Memories

II. Constructing Memories From Multiple Sources: Source Monitoring Error

memories are constructed from the original event plus other sources, as illustrated by source monitoring error (aka source misattribution)-misidentifying the source of a memory

Constructing Memories

II. Constructing Memories From Multiple Sources: Source Monitoring Error

Jacoby et al’s (1989) “Becoming Famous Overnight” Study…

procedure: participants read nonfamous names; ½ given immediate test to ID famous names with old & new nonfamous names as foils; ½ given same test after 24 hours

results: more names from original list incorrectly identified as famous in delay condition

interpretation: after delay, familiarity misattributed to fame

Constructing Memories

III. Expectations Are a Major Source of Memory Construction

A. Schemas

From his War of the Ghosts research, Bartlett proposed the concept of schema-a cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information

schemas underlie our expectations.

Brewer & Treyens’ (1981)”Office Study” demonstrates the influence of schemas in memory …

Constructing Memories

Brewer & Treyens’ (1981)”Office Study”…

Participants were asked to wait in experimenter’s “office” for a short time.

Later they were asked to list the items they remembered being in the room. Can you?

Results: participants remembered schema-consistent items hat were present (desk) and that weren’t (books) but not items that were inconsistent with schema (wine bottle, picnic basket).

III. Expectations Are a Major Source of Memory Construction

A. Schemas

From his War of the Ghosts research, Bartlett proposed the concept of schema-a cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information

schemas underlie our expectations.

Brewer & Treyens’ (1981)”Office Study” demonstrates the influence of schemas in memory

schemas explain the false memories in our opening demo; we have schemas for sleep, chair and sweet.

Constructing Memories

III. Expectations Are a Major Source of Memory Construction

A. Schemas

B. Scripts- schemas for a sequence of actions are called (e.g. dentist, restaurant, laundry)

C. Stereotypes-schemas for groups of people

Allport & Postman’s (1947) “Rumor Study” shows how memory is distorted by stereotype…

Constructing Memories

IV. Like Other Cognitive Processes, Memory Construction Is a Shortcut That Overcomes Environmental Ambiguity

Recall that the seemingly impossible challenge the mind must overcome is ambiguity in the environment.

Recall we overcome this challenge effortlessly using satisficing shortcuts (“heuristics”)

Memory Construction is such a shortcut; it “Fills in the Blanks”.

A byproduct of satisficing shortcuts is errors (e.g. Muller-Lyer), here false memories

because the same constructive processes that produce accurate memories also produce false memories, we are equally confident in accurate and false memories (e.g. sleep, chair, sweet)

Constructing Memories

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