Chat with us, powered by LiveChat After studying Module 6: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following: Describe major changes that occurs on the neurological system associated to age. Include changes on cen | EssayAbode

After studying Module 6: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following: Describe major changes that occurs on the neurological system associated to age. Include changes on cen

 

After studying Module 6: Lecture Materials & Resources, discuss the following:

  • Describe major changes that occurs on the neurological system associated to age. Include changes on central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
  • Define delirium and dementia, specified similarities and differences and describe causes for each one.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

 

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Chapter 25

Endocrine Function

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There is decreased estrogen production in women (menopause), decreased testosterone production in men (andropause), decreased adrenal function (adrenopause), and decreased growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (somatopause).

Neuroendocrine Aging

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Endocrine system uses a delicate balance of chemical messengers in the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis and regulate mood, growth, organ function, metabolism, nutrition, and sexual activity.

Clinical manifestations due to the imbalance include decreased bone remodeling, decreased lean muscle mass, increased adipose tissue, compromised skin integrity, impaired insulin signaling, and impaired immune response.

Endocrine Physiology in Older Adults

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Decline in biosynthesis and balance of sex hormones with aging

Both genders may experience hot flashes, night sweats, depression, and sexual dysfunction in response to declines in androgen or estrogen.

Laboratory values—luteinizing hormone and testosterone in men; follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen in women determine endocrine decline.

Andropause and Menopause

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Menopausal and postmenopausal hormone replacement (HR) practices continue to change based on larger, more rigorous research studies.

Although many clinicians continue to prescribe hormone replacements, the benefit must outweigh the risks of developing adverse events.

Menopause

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Age-related decreases in mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgenic hormones manifest changes in body composition, skeletal mass, muscle strength, body weight, and metabolism.

Age-related decreases in DHEA and norepinephrine can produce fluid and electrolyte imbalances; impair glucose, protein, and fat metabolisms; and impair immune and inflammatory responses.

Adrenopause

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Somatotropin (growth hormone), an anabolic protein, is secreted from the hypothalamus–pituitary axis and influences many age-related changes.

Somatopause

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Multifactorial syndrome of aging due to chronic low inflammation, and is characterized by central obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, and/or hyperglycemia

Primary risk factors for the syndrome are abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, physical inactivity, and hormonal imbalance.

Metabolic Syndrome–Diabetes Continuum Pathophysiology

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When three of the following five criteria are met:

Obesity (waist circumference >40 inches in men or >35 inches in women)

Blood pressure >130/85 mm Hg

Fasting plasma glucose >100 mg dL

Triglyceride >150 mg dL

HDL cholesterol >40 mg dL in men or <50 mg dL in women

Metabolic Syndrome: Diagnosis

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Primary therapeutic objectives: reduction of risk factors for diabetes and atherosclerotic disease

Therapeutic lifestyles changes

Nutritional management watch—low-saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, and simple sugars

Drug therapy for elevations in blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and hyperglycemia

Metabolic Syndrome: Medical Management

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Patients with metabolic syndrome have a fivefold increased risk.

Hyperglycemia is caused by impaired carbohydrate metabolism, changes in pulsatile insulin release, and resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal.

Signs and symptoms: polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria, fatigue, blurred vision, weight change (gain or loss), and infections

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Pathophysiology

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Goal for A1C in healthy older population—<7.5%; in frail, older adults with comorbidities—≤8%

Includes risk reduction: cessation of smoking, controlling hypertension, managing dyslipidemia, promoting exercise, and aspirin therapy

Metformin along with lifestyle modification, or other drugs in combination and insulin if A1C is >9%, fasting plasma glucose is >250 mg/dL, random glucose is consistently >300 mg/dL, or ketonuria is present

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Medical Management

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Review of past medical, surgical, and family history

Current medications

Self-care abilities or restrictions, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels

Current weight measurement and recent patterns of loss or gain

Food and fluid balance; hyperglycemia may produce subtle symptoms in older adults

Urinary assessment

Current living conditions

T2DM: Assessment and Diagnosis (1 of 2)

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Evaluate for the presence of bowel incontinence, constipation, and diarrhea.

Assess ability to learn and knowledge of T2DM.

Assess memory and mood.

Assess for neurologic symptoms.

Assess patient’s skin condition.

Assess circulation, blood pressure (BP) lying, and sitting.

Can you name six nursing diagnoses?

T2DM: Assessment and Diagnosis (2 of 2)

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Inadequate or excessive nutrition resulting from decreased functional capacity, altered taste, and deficient knowledge

Decreased tissue perfusion, peripheral, resulting from decreased or interrupted arterial flow

Reduced sexual expression resulting from metabolic alterations

Inadequate coping resulting from metabolic alteration or feelings of distress

Need for health teaching resulting from diabetes self-management and skills

Potential for reduced skin integrity resulting from impaired circulation

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The patient will do the following:

Follow the plan of care by taking action on the basis of professional advice

Show evidence of successful individual coping

Demonstrate increased knowledge of the ADA diet

Demonstrate understanding of drug administration

Maintain peripheral circulation

Demonstrate foot care regimen

Verbalize satisfaction with the degree of sexual functioning

T2DM: Planning and Expected Outcome

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Education

Diet

Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs

Emergency identification

Blood glucose monitoring

Exercise

Lifestyle changes

Sick day management

Skin alterations and wound infections

T2DM: Intervention

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Evaluate the effectiveness of care plan by frequently measuring achievement of established specific outcomes.

The nurse should positively reinforce effective diabetes management strategies.

If a patient does not comply with management strategies, situation needs to be reassessed so that adaptations can be made.

Document assessments.

T2DM: Evaluation

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The nurse is caring for an older adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. While reviewing his labs, the nurse notes if the patient has metabolic syndrome. Which of the following labs are consistent with this syndrome? (Select all that apply.)

FBS 150 mg/dL

HDL 32 mg/dL

Triglyceride 120 mg/dL

HgbA1C 7.2%

Quick Quiz!

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ANS: A, B

Answer to Quick Quiz

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Involves hypersecretion of thyroid hormones, enlarged thyroid gland

Low or suppressed TSH level

Subclinical hyperthyroidism: asymptomatic patient has suppressed serum TSH level with normal thyroxine (T4) and T3 levels; associated atrial fibrillation and decreased bone mineral density

Thyroid storm: life-threatening syndrome—fever, severe tachycardia, altered mental status, dehydration, and irritability

Hyperthyroidism Pathophysiology

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Classic geriatric presentation—tachycardia, fatigue, tremors, and nervousness

Enlarged, palpable goiter present in 60% of older adults with hyperthyroidism.

Most common complication is atrial fibrillation.

Hyperthyroidism Signs and Symptoms

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Treatment: antithyroid drugs and radioactive iodine

Rarely is surgical intervention required due to the risk of surgery to older adults

Adjunctive treatment—with beta-adrenergic blockers, can slow the heart rate of tachycardia

Hyperthyroidism Medical Management

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Hypofunctioning endocrine state that results from inadequate thyroid hormone

Diagnosis is based on sensitive, reliable assays of serum TSH and T4 levels.

Elevation of serum TSH level

Primary hypothyroidism—hypofunctioning of the thyroid

Secondary hypothyroidism—nonfunctional anterior pituitary gland

Tertiary hypothyroidism—defect in the hypothalamus

Hypothyroidism Pathophysiology

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Almost all cases of hypothyroidism in older adults are subclinical, inconspicuous, and progress slowly toward thyroid failure.

Symptoms often attributed to old age: fatigue, cold intolerance, weight gain, muscle cramps, paresthesias, and confusion

Hypothyroidism Signs and Symptoms

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Treatment for hypothyroidism includes pure synthetic thyroxine (e.g., levothyroxine).

Usual starting dose is at 25 mcgs per day. The drug is increased every 4–6 weeks until the serum levels of T4 and TSH are within the normal range.

Hypothyroidism Medical Management

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Six times more frequently in women

Characterized by low bone mass leading to fragile, easy-to-break bones

Low bone mass from failure to reach peak bone mass as a young adult, increased bone resorption, or decreased bone formation

50%–80% of peak bone mass is genetically determined.

Diagnosed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine

Primary Osteoporosis Pathophysiology

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Spontaneous fractures are those caused by minimum trauma, loss of height, dorsal kyphosis, chronic back pain.

History of fractures after 40 years old, family history of osteoporosis, cigarette smoking, and low body mass index have been shown to correlate strongly with osteoporosis.

Primary Osteoporosis Signs and Symptoms

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Calcium 500–1000 mg/day and vitamin D least 400 IU/day

Weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises add minimally to bone density, but help posture, balance, and reduce falls.

Estrogens, bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and calcitonin are used in antiresorptive therapy based on risk profile.

Primary Osteoporosis Medical Management

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Erectile dysfunction (ED) and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) have garnered increased interest and research dollars in recent

FSD remains ill defined, even though a relatively high rate of sexual dysfunction exists among postmenopausal women due to low desire, vaginal dryness, or inability to reach orgasm.

Sexual Dysfunction

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ED is persistent inability to achieve or sustain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse and penetration.

FSD is a sexual arousal disorder due to menopause and declining estrogen produces a thin and dry vaginal vault which causes decline in sexual arousal, pain during intercourse.

Neuroendocrine physiologic impairments interfere with the normal female sexual response.

Sexual Dysfunction Signs and Symptoms

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Pharmacological—phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and alprostadil

Nonpharmacological—counseling, lifestyle modifications, vacuum constriction devices, and performing regular erection exercises

Surgery

FSD Tx—watchful waiting, dose reduction of causative drugs, testosterone replacement, sensate focus psychotherapy, and prescription of bupropion, buspirone, or sildenafil

Sexual Dysfunction Medical Management

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,

Chapter 23

Musculoskeletal Function

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Diseases of musculoskeletal system are usually not fatal but can lead to chronic pain and disability.

May cause impairments in ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)

When dependence occurs, can result in loss of self-esteem, perception of decreased quality of life, and depression

Introduction

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Muscle mass, tone, and strength decrease

Elasticity of ligaments, tendons, and cartilage decreases

Bone mass decreases

Intervertebral disks lose water, narrowing the vertebral space.

Posture and gait change leading to shift in center of gravity.

Age-Related Changes in Structure and Function

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Musculoskeletal system affected in numerous ways by aging process

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All the changes may cause pain, impaired mobility, self-care deficits, and increased risk of falls for older adults.

One-third of people age 65 or older have falls each year.

Moderate to severe injuries included hip fractures, lacerations, and traumatic brain injury.

Falls are the most common cause of accidental death.

Fall experience causes a fear of falling.

Consequences of Changes in Structure and Function

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Common problems and often result in loss of functional ability

May occur because of trauma to bone or joint, or may be the result of pathologic processes

Falls are a common cause.

Most common fractures are hip, the proximal femur, Colles (wrist), vertebral, and clavicular.

Fractures

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Most disabling type of fracture for older adults

25% patients with hip fractures die within 1 year after injury.

Complications of hip fractures generally related to immobility.

Classified by location: intracapsular, extracapsular

Affected extremity is externally rotated and shortened with tenderness and severe pain.

Hip Fracture

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Assess hips and lower extremities for evidence of fracture such as shortening of the extremity, and abnormal rotation.

Assess for presence of tenderness, swelling, or ecchymosis and pain with movement.

Obtain VS and level of consciousness.

Can you name six nursing diagnoses for hip fracture?

Hip Fracture: Assessment and Diagnosis

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Pain, resulting from the discomfort from the muscle and bone trauma

Decreased mobility, resulting from immobilization of the fracture and the healing process

Potential for reduced skin integrity, resulting from immobilization required for healing

Potential for infection, resulting from inadequate wound healing, compromised nutrition, and effects of immobility

Inadequate bathing/dressing/feeding/toileting self-care, resulting from discomfort and decreased mobility

Inadequate home maintenance, resulting from decreased independence and recovery period needed for fracture healing

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The patient will do the following:

Report minimum discomfort and an adequate level of pain control

Remain free from postoperative complications, such as altered skin integrity and wound infection

Adhere to the prescribed physical therapy regimen

Participate in physical and occupational therapies

Safely demonstrate use of assistive devices for mobility and ADLs

Return to the preinjury level of independence with appropriate support and assistive devices

Hip Fracture: Planning and Expected Outcomes

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Assess and stabilize medical conditions and hip fracture.

If surgical intervention: keep patient comfortable and hydrated and prevent complications of immobility during pre-op period

Postoperative: monitoring of VS, I&O, and mental status (watch for delirium)

Turning, deep breathing, and coughing

Monitor for signs of infection and bleeding

Assess movement, circulation, and sensation

Provide safety, comfort, and maintain their sense of independence and identity.

Maintain proper hip alignment to prevent dislocation.

Prevent constipation.

Appropriate patent teaching.

Hip Fracture: Intervention

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Successful achievement of expected outcomes will allow patient to return to preinjury level of function.

Should be successful in meeting goals of therapy

Should report minimum pain at the fracture or surgical site and intact skin integrity

Muscle strength, joint movement, level of mobility, and degree of safety while performing ADLs should be continually evaluated.

Hip Fracture: Evaluation

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Fracture of distal radius as a result of reaching out with open hand to break fall.

Immediate pain, local edema, swelling, and visible deformity from displacement of distal bone fragment

Treatment: closed reduction and immobilization with forearm splint or cast.

Elevate extremity and perform neurovascular assessment to monitor for complications.

Instruct patient to actively move thumb and fingers to improve venous return and decrease edema.

Colles Fracture

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Occurs after fall on outstretched hand or on fall to shoulder

Point tenderness, local edema, and crepitus

Shoulder noticeably deformed, dropping downward, forward, and inward

Treatment: reduction of fracture and immobilization with a sling or cast

Monitor for neurovascular complications, elevate extremity, and instruct patient to actively move hand and fingers.

Clavicular Fracture

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Casting materials include plaster of Paris or synthetic materials such as fiberglass.

Instruct to keep casts dry; keep extremity elevated to level of heart to decrease edema; maintain movement of extremity to prevent muscle atrophy and joint stiffness.

Assess for potential areas of skin irritation or breakdown; neurovascular assessment; control pain with medication; prepare patient for self-care and prevent complications.

Casts and Cast Care

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Degenerative joint disease; noninflammatory disease of joints characterized by progressive articular cartilage deterioration and formation of new bone in joint space

When joint cartilage lost, two bone surfaces come into contact with each other, resulting in joint pain.

Most common type of arthritis

Causes: age, trauma, lifestyle, obesity, and genetics are predisposing factors.

Osteoarthritis (OA)

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Joints most commonly affected: distal interphalangeals, carpometacarpal joint, first metatarsophalangeal joint, proximal interphalangeals, knees, hips, and spine

Gradual onset aching joint pain; pain occurs with activity and relieved with rest; stiffness after periods of inactivity that resolves with activity

Crepitus may be heard and felt with range of motion in affected joints; affected joints have decreased range of motion.

Bony enlargements, Heberden nodes, may be seen on the distal interphalangeals, and Bouchard nodes may be seen on the proximal joints.

OA Presentation

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History of problem: the onset, location, quality, and duration of the joint pain and precipitating factors

Questions about drugs used to relieve pain, including prescription and OTC agents and nonpharmacologic interventions

Inspect affected joints for pain, tenderness, swelling, redness, crepitation, and range of motion

Can you name three nursing diagnoses for OA?

OA: Assessment and Diagnosis

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Pain resulting from inflammation and deterioration of the joint cartilage

Reduced mobility as a result of lower extremity joint stiffness

Inadequate self-care as a result of limitations in joint movement and strength

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The patient will do the following:

Verbalize an improved level of comfort with activities

Successfully use various adaptive devices in maintaining independence in ADLs and IADLs

Demonstrate safe use of assistive devices for ambulation

Demonstrate an understanding of the use of orthotics

OA: Planning and Expected Outcomes

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Instruct on joint protection and energy conservation.

Educate on heat and cold therapy, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, topical gels, and injected steroids.

For surgical patients (severe pain and increasing disability)

Preoperative period: educate about surgical procedure, its risks, potential complications, and postoperative course

After surgery: prevent complications, relieve surgical pain, and assist patient in achieving higher level of function and activity

OA: Conservative Intervention

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