Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Because of the illegal nature of drugs, individuals who use illicit substances can end up in the custody of the criminal justice system. Based on the information that you have learned in this cou | EssayAbode

Because of the illegal nature of drugs, individuals who use illicit substances can end up in the custody of the criminal justice system. Based on the information that you have learned in this cou

Because of the illegal nature of drugs, individuals who use illicit substances can end up in the custody of the criminal justice system. Based on the information that you have learned in this course, do you feel that the criminal justice system sufficiently handles the issue of drug addiction/use? There are alternatives to incarceration, as seen in drug courts, but what type of rehabilitation is offered to repeat offenders (hard core addicts)? Should addiction been seen as a public health issue rather than a criminal issue?

Defend your answers with evidence.

Each discussion board post will be between 200 – 300 words long. Refer & cite current resources in your answer. 

https://www.bop.gov/inmates/custody_and_care/substance_abuse_treatment.jsp

https://nida.nih.gov/drug-topics/criminal-justice/science-drug-use-resource-justice-sector

Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice

CHAPTER

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

FOURTH EDITION

Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment

17

Copyright © 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Introduction

• The principles of effective substance abuse prevention are applicable to a host of lifestyle situations.

 Tobacco use

 Nonmedical use of prescription and nonprescription medications

 Alcohol

 Illicit drugs

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Levels of Intervention in Substance Abuse Prevention

• Abuse prevention

 Primary

 Secondary

 Tertiary

• Each level has its own target population.

• Each level has specific goals.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Primary Prevention

• Target population

 Those with no experience with drugs

 Those minimally exposed

• Objective

 Prevent substance abuse from start.

 Elementary/middle school youths

 School-based curriculum

 Community involvement encouraged

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Secondary Prevention

• Target population

 Has some experience with alcohol, drugs and nicotine

• Objective

 Limit substance abuse.

 Prevent abuse behavior.

 Teach strategies for responsible use.

 Restrict behavior to moderate alcohol use.

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Tertiary Prevention

• Target population

 Individuals in treatment program

• Objective

 Ensure individual who entered substance abuse treatment becomes drug free.

 Treatment has ended.

 Does not revert back to drug-taking

 Successful prevention of relapse

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention

• Prevention programs

 Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)

• Division of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention

• Prevention accomplished through two efforts

1.Promotion of constructive life-styles.

2.Norms that discourage substance abuse.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Resilience and Primary Prevention Efforts

• Successful primary prevention programs

 Built around protective factors in life

• Resilience

 Resist the effect of risk factors through the action of protective factors

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Resilience and Primary Prevention Efforts

• Positive social skills and encouragement of "buffering effect" of protective factors

• Young population principal target

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Measuring Success in a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

• Complicated

• Core issue

 Is the prevalence of substance abuse reduced as a result of the program?

• Evidence-based means it must be evaluated against a control group.

• Positive change is not enough.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Substance Abuse Prevention: National Drug-Control Policy

• White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)

 Priority I—Stop drug use before it starts.

 Priority II—Heal America's drug users.

 Priority III—Disrupt drug trade market.

• $25.4 billion budget for 2015

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Prevention Approaches That Have Failed

• Helpful to look at programs that have failed

• Some programs incorporated successfully as one of several components within an overall effective package

 Reducing the availability of drugs

 Punitive measures and scare tactics

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Prevention Approaches That Have Failed

• Some programs incorporated successfully as one of several components within an overall effective package

 Promotional campaigns

 Education

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Reducing the Availability of Drugs

• "Supply/availability"

 Drug prevention

• A decline in supply equals increase in value and demand.

• Reductions in supply should prevent drug-taking behavior or people want the drug even more.

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Reducing the Availability of Drugs

• National Drug Control Policy

 Reduce drug supply.

• Majority of budget is on drug control.

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Reducing the Availability of Drugs

• Global efforts

 Frustratingly inadequate

 Control international drug trafficking

• Unsuccessful

• Only small fraction is intercepted.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Punitive Measures

• Expectation

 Individuals less inclined to use and abuse illicit drugs if afraid of being arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and incarcerated

• However, threat has little effect as a deterrent.

• Drug inducements are extremely powerful, and harsh penalties delayed or inconsistent.

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Punitive Measures

• Mandatory minimum-sentencing laws

 Clogged judicial system

 Vastly overcrowded prisons

 Have not made a dent in trafficking or consumption of illegal drugs

 Failed as effective means for either primary or secondary prevention

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Scare Tactics and Negative Education

• 1960s

 Widespread use of marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, LSD

• Hastily designed programs

 Based on arousal of fear

 Inaccurate information on risks

 Products of panic rather than careful thought

 Eroded credibility

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Objective Information Approaches

• Drug information presented in a straightforward, nonjudgmental way

• Just the facts

• Tended to increase the curiosity about drugs for youth that were high risk

 Semi-effective for low risk youth

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Magic Bullets and Promotional Campaigns

• Antidrug promotional materials

 T-shirts, caps, rings, buttons, bumper stickers, posters, rap songs, school assembly productions, and brochures

• Seen as "magic bullets"

• Clinch success in substance abuse prevention programs

• High visibility

 Clear message

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Self-Esteem Enhancement and Affective Education

• 1970s

 Prevention programs emphasized emotional component of drug-taking behavior, not drug information.

• Relationship between drug abuse and:

 Low self-esteem

 Poor decision-making skills

 Poor interpersonal communication skills

• Designed to help young people

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Peer-Refusal Skills

• 1980s

 School-based programs.

• Teach personal and social skills

• Techniques for resisting social pressure to:

 Smoke, drink, or use drugs

• More than "Just Say No"

• Effective for tobacco and somewhat for alcohol and marijuana.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Anxiety and Stress Reduction

• Adolescence can be a stressful time.

• Drug-taking behavior seen as way to:

 Reduce feelings of anxiety

 Inadequate coping skills

 Dealing with anxiety

• Techniques of:

 Self-relaxation

 Stress management

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Social Skills and Personal Decision Making

• Peer-refusal skills is an example of assertiveness skills that allow young people to express themselves.

• Decision making involves:

 Identification of a problem

 Formulation of goals

 Generation of alternative solutions

 Consideration of consequences

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Effective School-Based Prevention Program

• Life Skills Training Program

 Cognitive component

 Decision-making component

 Stress reduction component

 Self-directed behavior change component

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)

• Developed in 1983

• Collaborative effort by LA Police Dept and Los Angeles United School District

• Kindergarten and elementary grade

• Teaches basic drug information, peer- refusal skills, and alternatives to drug use

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)

• Established in:

 All fifty U.S. states

 Native American schools

 U.S. Department of Defense schools

 School systems in foreign countries

• From "supply reduction" to proactive in "demand reduction"

• The Three Rs

 Recognize, Resist, Report

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Community-Based Prevention Programs

• Involvement of significant individuals

• Impactors

 Role models

• The mass media help promote antidrug.

• Community-based programs promote public policy changes.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Alternative-Behavior Programming

• It is easier to say no to drugs when you can say yes to something else.

 Activities and outlets that steer people away from the high-risk situations

• Outside school is where most drug- taking behavior occurs.

• Necessary interventions

• Highly successful for at-risk adolescents

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Table 17.1 Alternative behaviors to drug use

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

The Influence of Media

• 2005 study

 8–18 year olds live "media-saturated lives… nearly 6-1/2 hours a day with media."

 One-quarter of time engaged in media multitasking

• Reading

• Listening to music

• Text messaging with friends

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

The Influence of Media

• "Generation M"

• Dominance of media in their lives

• Impact of media messages on drug- taking behavior

• Exposed to over 80 explicit references to substance use per day in course of listening to popular music

• Potential impact can be substantial.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Family Systems in Primary and Secondary Prevention

• Family influences form the cornerstone of successful substance abuse prevention program.

• Family is first line of defense.

 Important role in communication

• Those who need information the most

 Parents who are in denial

 Those out of control themselves

 Those who are absent

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Special Role Models

• Can be parents or other family members

 Educators or resources for information

 Convey the consequences of drug- taking

 Offer alternative-behavior programs

 Advise against peer pressure and reinforce peer-refusal skills

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

The Triple Threat: Stress, Boredom, and Money

• Three circumstances on the likelihood that a teenager would engage in some form of substance abuse

1. The degree of stress they are under

2. The frequency with which they are bored

3. Money they have to spend in a week

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Substance Abuse Prevention and the College Student

• Particularly challenging

• Diverse group

• Focus on being responsible

• Culture of heavy drinking

• Should develop multifaceted prevention program and incorporate it into the curriculum

• Offer more social and recreational activities

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Prevention and Treatment in the Workplace

• 1988 Drug-free Workplace Act

 Requires that all businesses receiving any federal grants:

• Provide a drug-free workplace.

• Establish employee assistance programs.

• Provide referrals to community agencies.

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Prevention and Treatment in the Workplace

• 1988 Drug-free Workplace Act

 Employee Assistance Programs (EAP)

 Member Assistance Programs (MAP)

• For union-supported

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Economic Costs of Substance Abuse in the Workplace

• Relative to nonabusers alcohol abusers

 5 times more likely to file a workers' comp

 3.6 times more likely to be involved in an accident on the job

 5 times more likely to be injured on the job

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Economic Costs of Substance Abuse in the Workplace

• Relative to nonabusers alcohol abusers

 3 times more likely to be late for work

 2.2 times more likely request time off

 16 times more likely to take sick leave

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Economic Costs of Substance Abuse in the Workplace

• Alcohol abuse and other drugs

 Major impact on workplace productivity

 Estimated costs from productivity lost

• $60–$100 billion each year

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Multicultural Issues: Latino

• 13% of the U.S. population

• Most effective when family units reinforced

• Fathers important as role model

• Machismo

 Full partners in parenting

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Multicultural Issues: Latino

• Encourage mothers to learn strategies.

• Latina women

 Drug problems strongly associated with a violation of womanly ideals of purity, discipline, and self-sacrifice

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Multicultural Issues: African American

• Tend to use drugs after they form social attitudes and behaviors associated with delinquency

• Common examples include:

 Drug dealing

 Shoplifting and petty theft

• Media campaigns

 Deglamorization of the drug dealer

continued on next slide

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Multicultural Issues: African American

• Substance abuse intensified with factors including:

 High unemployment

 Poverty

 Poor health care

 Poor nutrition

• Protective factors provide resilience for high risk adolescents.

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Multicultural Issues: Native American

• Particular difficulties with substance abuse

 Higher than the general population

 Some Native American beliefs can promote use.

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Substance Abuse Treatment: Journey to Recovery

• Typically "jolted" by some external force to enter treatment

• It is a frightening experience to enter treatment.

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Drugs, Society, and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition Charles F. Levinthal

Stages of Change

• Five distinct "stages of change"

1. Precontemplation

2. Contemplation

3. Preparation

4. Action

5. Maintenance

• Not a linear process; more like a spiral.

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