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Week Four:. Signature Assignment Case Study

This assignment has two parts. It contains a paper and power point presentation. you MUST follow the rubric and complete the requirements of the rubric. See word doc for instructions. BE SURE TO ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS. IT IS BEST TO BOLD THE QUESTION SO IT IS EASILY IDENTIFIED IN YOUR PAPER. 

Week Four:. Signature Assignment Case Study

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Instructions

"Decisions, Decisions" .

Suppose University Memorial Hospital is deciding whether or not to build and operate its own day-care center. As you write your Signature Assignment paper, please  consider the following:

***PLEASE FOLLOW THE RUBRIC LISTED BELOW FOR PAPER***

PAPER INCLUDES: Executive Summery, Introduction, content, answer all the question below, conclusion, APA Format.

1. Who are the possible stakeholders and what would their respective expectations be of the new center?

2. What data would/could you gather and how would you gather it to support or contradict your decision. Using a strategic planning process, describe the steps in the process that would best support this project.

3. Prepare a SWOT analysis to guide your decision to build and operate the center, or not.

4. What teams would need to be formed and what might the roles be?

5. What positions would need to be in place?6.

6. How would the manager of the Day Care Center control and motivate associates so they can reach the highest level of performance

7. What would be the determinants of success?

8. What should be done to create a successful culture? (Motivation theories, leadership behaviors, etc.)

9. What should the communication plan look like?

10. What decision making process would you utilize to check your decision to build and operate the Day Care Center or not.

· Your written assignment must be formatted in APA using a cover letter, page numbers, running head, and reference page. Sources must be cited in text per APA guidelines.

· No errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure or writing mechanics should be evident.

· A minimum of three references are required.

· Required word count is 1250-1750.

Create a 1–2minute (5-8 slides) power point presenting your Executive Summary to the CEO of University Memorial Hospital.

USE THE SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT RUBRIC PROVIDED TO ENSURE MAXIMUM POINTS. (see below)

Rubric Name: Week Four Signature Assignment Rubric "Decisions, Decisions"

Print Rubric

Criteria

Highly Developed

18.75 points

Developed

15 points

Basic

12 points

Needs Improvement

10 points

Not Present

5 points

Criterion Score

Executive Summary

The ES presents a succinct, 120 words, single- paragraph overview that clearly states the paper's intent, with proper formatting and placement in the paper. Addresses all components of an Executive Summary

The ES presents a succinct, 120 words, single- paragraph overview that states the paper's intent, but could be more concise and clearer with proper formatting and placement in the paper.

The ES presenting a 120-word paragraph was not present or may not be formatted or placed properly in the paper.

An ES is attempted but is not properly formatted and is not close to the needed word count.

The ES is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Executive Summary,

/ 18.75

Introduction

The introduction is engaging, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper

The introduction states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.

The introduction states the main topic but does not adequately preview the structure of the paper.

The introduction unclearly states the topic and does not adequately preview the structure of the paper.

The introduction is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements

Score of Introduction,

/ 18.75

Content

Each paragraph has thoughtful, supporting, detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Each paragraph has sufficient, supporting, detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Some paragraphs lack supporting detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Most paragraphs lack supporting detail sentences. The main idea is not clearly conveyed.

The content is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Content,

/ 18.75

Requirements of the Paper

All questions posed in the assignment were answered in a clear and concise way that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. (750-1250 MIN). This includes the 1 minute video presenting the ES.

All questions posed in the assignment were answered that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. Some ideas are slightly unclear. (750-1250 MIN) The 1 minute video was slightly unclear.

Most questions posed in the assignment were answered that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. Many ideas are unclear. The ES video was unclear.

Some questions posed in the assignment were answered but were not clear and concise or word count was not met nor were the requirements for the video.

Many questions were left unanswered or do not reflect the necessary requirements, including the 1 minute video.

Score of Requirements of the Paper,

/ 18.75

Conclusion

The conclusion is engaging, succinctly addressed the main points, and restates the thesis.

The conclusion restates the main points and the thesis

The conclusion restates the thesis but misses some main points

The conclusion misses many main points, partially restates the thesis, or includes new ideas.

The conclusion is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Conclusion,

/ 18.75

Mechanics

No errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling. Paper clearly conveys position and thoughtful reflection.

No errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Almost no errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Many errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Substantial errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling

Score of Mechanics,

/ 18.75

APA In-text Citations and References

All In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format with no errors. All cited references are done in a correct format with no errors.

Many In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Minor inconsistencies are evident. Many cited references are done in a correct format. Minor inconsistencies are evident.

Some In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Inconsistencies evident. Some cited references are done in a correct format. Inconsistencies evident.

Few In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Few cited references are done in a correct format.

The APA in-text citations and references are not present or do not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of APA In-text Citations and References,

/ 18.7

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,

HCA 620

Health Organization Management

Welcome to the Week Four lecture for HCA 620 Health Organization Management.

1

Week Four

Motivation

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

This week we will start with Motivation. Click on the continue button to begin.

2

Motivation Theories

Motivation is the “set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways.”

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Motivation is the “set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways.” Reading this definition carefully, we realize that motivation is not the act of doing something; it is the forces that lead people to do something. When managers motivate employees, they apply forces to create workers’ desire and willingness to behave a certain way. However, managers must realize that motivation is not enough to ensure a worker actually behaves as desired. For example, Matt may be motivated to shampoo the waiting room carpet at a medical group practice in Albany. But if the carpet-cleaning equipment is broken, Matt will be unable to do that task despite his motivation. The same would happen if his boss reassigned him to some other task that was more urgent.

3

Motivation Theories

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (based on physiological survival, safety and security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization).

Herzberg’s two-factor theory (based on hygiene factors and motivators).

Vroom’s expectancy theory (based on effort, performance, outcome).

Skinner’s reinforcement theory (based on rewards and punishments).

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

This chapter examines motivation theories (sometimes referred to as motivation approaches or motivation perspectives).

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (based on physiological survival, safety and security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization).

Herzberg's two-factor theory (based on hygiene factors and motivators).

Vroom's expectancy theory (based on effort, performance, outcome).

Skinner's reinforcement theory (based on rewards and punishments).

Use of human needs theories is challenging because workers belong to four or even five generations that have different values, motivators, interests, and feelings about work. So which of these theories or approaches should a leader use? Like many other aspects of management, it depends. We know that in HCOs today, workers are very diverse regarding their generations, ethnicities, and other characteristics. These differences cause differences in values, preferences about work, and motivators. For example, the American culture values achievement, and Eastern cultures value harmony. Further, a person's motivators may change over time. When Adrianna graduates from college with loans to repay, she will be motivated by money. After she repays her loans, she may be more motivated by opportunities for professional growth. When it comes to motivation, one size does not fit all.

4

Motivation Theories

So as a manager, what should you do?

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

So as a manager, what should you do? First, assess the situation and people. Second, choose appropriate motivation methods to fit the situation and people. Figure out what brings pleasure to each of your employees. If you can provide that through their work, it may help motivate them to work. If an employee gains pleasure from being with other people and forming friendships, then be sure the job provides opportunities for social interaction. Think about this advice as you study each motivation theory.

5

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Abraham Maslow theorized in the 1950s that human motivation comes from five basic human needs that have a hierarchical order—from the lowest, most basic need for physiological survival to the highest need for self-fulfillment. He thought people had to fulfill their lowest unsatisfied need before they would be motivated by higher needs. Thus, they would have to fulfill their physiological survival need before the safety need would motivate them. View the diagram for a better understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Examples

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

View the table for a better understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Examples.

7

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

To motivate workers, first reduce dissatisfaction, then increase satisfaction

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are mostly caused by different factors… though some factors can affect both

Satisfaction associated with intrinsic motivator factors Dissatisfaction associated with extrinsic hygiene factors
Achievement Company policies
Growth Pay
Recognition Supervision
Responsibility Working conditions

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Frederick Herzberg studied workers and concluded that they are motivated by things that increase feelings of satisfaction. Herzberg's research led him to conclude that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by different factors. One group of factors, which he labeled hygiene, is associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene (maintenance) factors are extrinsic—external to the work itself—and would generally fit with Maslow's three lower needs. Hygiene factors include company policies, pay, supervision, coworkers, and other work conditions. If these are adequate, they prevent workers from feeling dissatisfied. If workers are dissatisfied, improving the hygiene factors reduces their dissatisfaction. Herzberg argued that better hygiene factors would make workers feel less dissatisfied but would not make them feel more satisfied.

So what would satisfy workers? A second group of factors, which Herzberg labeled motivators, come from the work itself and include achievement, growth, recognition, challenge, autonomy, and responsibility. Herzberg believed motivators are intrinsic—internal to the work—and arise from the content of the work itself and how it makes a worker feel. Motivators could be viewed as equivalent to Maslow's two higher needs. For example, feeling achievement and fulfillment after completing a new, challenging project comes from the work itself. Herzberg argued that workers are motivated to do work that includes more motivators, which would enable the workers to realize more satisfaction. These motivators would not reduce or affect dissatisfaction, however.

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Managers should ensure adequate pay, supervision, policies, and coworker relationships and provide safe, secure jobs and working conditions. Limitations arise when culturally diverse workers grow up with different feelings about hygiene factors (e.g., following rules, interacting with supervisors, accepting a job's working conditions) and about motivators (e.g., desire for achievement, challenge, autonomy).

Herzberg advised managers to first use hygiene factors to reduce workers’ dissatisfaction. Managers should ensure adequate pay, supervision, policies, and coworker relationships and provide safe, secure jobs and working conditions. When workers do not feel dissatisfied, managers should then design jobs and work to enable workers to experience motivators and satisfaction. Managers should organize their employees’ work for achievement, recognition, autonomy, responsibility, fulfillment, growth, and respect.

This two-factor theory became popular, but it has weaknesses. For example, some hygiene factors can affect both dissatisfaction and satisfaction. Sometimes both hygiene and motivator factors can motivate workers to higher levels of performance. Workers may perform better because a hygiene factor (e.g., a big pay raise) also provides a form of recognition and thus is a motivator. Limitations arise when culturally diverse workers grow up with different feelings about hygiene factors (e.g., following rules, interacting with supervisors, accepting a job's working conditions) and about motivators (e.g., desire for achievement, challenge, autonomy). Research findings are mixed and seem to depend on other factors, such as an employee's organization level and age.

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Increase workers’ work variety with different activities and skills.

Increase workers’ work identity with responsibility to complete a whole piece of work.

Increase workers’ work significance with awareness of how work affects other people.

Increase workers’ work autonomy with freedom and choice regarding work decisions.

Increase workers’ work feedback with clear information about job performance.

Despite its limitations, managers often use the two-factor theory. As a manager, pay attention to both dissatisfaction and satisfaction and realize that different factors might be needed to reduce dissatisfaction and to increase satisfaction. When applying the two-factor motivation theory, you might first have to improve hygiene factors such as working conditions and rules so that workers do not feel dissatisfied. Then, you can increase motivators to increase job satisfaction—and work motivation. This step may require redesigning jobs to give workers more opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and self-accountability. To do so, you can follow Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model:

Increase workers’ work variety with different activities and skills.

Increase workers’ work identity with responsibility to complete a whole piece of work.

Increase workers’ work significance with awareness of how work affects other people.

Increase workers’ work autonomy with freedom and choice regarding work decisions.

Increase workers’ work feedback with clear information about job performance.

Based on: work effort, performance, outcomes.

– Outcomes must be valued by worker.

Will worker’s work effort produce performance needed to obtain valued outcome ?

– If worker expects answer is “yes,” worker is motivated to give the effort to produce the performance to obtain the outcome.

Workers are not motivated if they:

– Expect performance and outcomes not within their control.

– Do not value the outcome.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

The expectancy theory of motivation was developed by Victor Vroom and others, also in the 1960s. Work effort, performance, and outcomes are the main components of this theory. It “suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it. Let's imagine Latasha is an associate in a healthcare consulting company in St. Louis. She could improve her work to earn a year-end pay bonus.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Latasha considers whether her improved work effort would be likely to produce good enough job performance. Does she expect that her better effort will be enough to create the necessary level of performance? Or will other factors (e.g., lazy coworkers, broken equipment) interfere with her improved work effort and prevent achieving sufficiently improved performance?

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Latasha considers whether her improved work effort would be likely to produce good enough job performance. Does she expect that her better effort will be enough to create the necessary level of performance? Or will other factors (e.g., lazy coworkers, broken equipment) interfere with her improved work effort and prevent achieving sufficiently improved performance?

Latasha considers to what extent improved work performance would obtain the desired outcome. Is the outcome tightly connected to her job performance? If she improves her work and produces better job performance, will she really get that pay bonus? Or will the bonus depend on other factors, such as the company's overall financial situation?

Latasha considers how strongly she wants the outcome. How much does she really want the bonus pay? The extra money would be great, but how about the added stress and having to work late some days? Would it all really be worth it?

Taken together, this approach argues that Latasha will wonder if her effort will produce the performance needed to obtain a valued outcome. The more she really wants the pay bonus—and expects that her improved work effort will produce the performance needed to obtain that bonus—then the more motivated she will be to improve her work effort.

Research generally supports this theory, although it has weaknesses. Expectancy theory assumes that workers (e.g., Latasha) rationally and logically do the mental calculations, yet in reality they might not. Also, even if workers try to rationally calculate the value of rewards, they might easily misjudge the connection between effort and performance or between performance and outcome. Finally, some workers feel o

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