Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Lets learn about SPSS, the requiring software for use in this class. The topics well cover in this presentation include file types, how to enter data, and how to copy data and or - EssayAbode

Lets learn about SPSS, the requiring software for use in this class. The topics well cover in this presentation include file types, how to enter data, and how to copy data and or

Textbooks used:

 Jackson. (2018). Custom MindTap Reader, Instant Access for Jackson, Research Methods and Statistics, 5th edition.

Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2016). Simple Guide to IBM SPSS – version 23.0 (14th ed.). Wadsworth, Inc.  

 Software used: SPSS Incorporated. SPSS Statistics Standard GradPack Software (current ed.). IBM North America.  

Let's learn about SPSS, the requiring software for use in this class. The topics we'll cover in this presentation include file types, how to enter data, and how to copy data and or output from SPSS to place into your Word document Homework file. Several types of files will be used in this course. Understanding the file extension types can save you time and frustration when trying to figure out how to open the files. File extension is shown at the end of the file name after the dot. The three types of files used in this course are shown on the screen. Word documents will be used for homework files. You will submit all of your homework as a Word document ending with a dot DOC or a dot DOCX. Spss is software you must install on your personal computer for use in this class. It will be used to conduct your statistical analyses. You will have data files that end in dot SAB and then your output will be placed into separate types of files, the SPSS output files, they ended in dot SPV, although earlier versions would end in dot SPO. After you've installed SPSS, you can open it. When you open SPSS, there will be two windows. One is the data file. This is the one that ends in extension dot S-A-V-E, as previously discussed. Let's start with this data file. This is the one that is shown on your screen right now. This is what the data file will look like if you create a new file. Notice that the bottom there are two tabs, a data view and the variable view. The data view is where you enter your data. The variable view is where you can specify variable information like the name, its scale of measurement, and any labels or codes. Let's start with the data view, which is shown on this slide. Each column temporarily labeled as they're typically represents a variable. Each row. Example where you see one all the way across, typically represents a participant's data. As just stated, the data view is where you would enter data as shown in this slide. I've entered data on two variables for ten participants. Ten participants is shown by counting the number of rows, which SPSS syntax for us. The two variables are demonstrated by having two columns. Now this won't always hold true, but it does for now. When using SPSS, we also want to code all variables, which means convert them to numbers. For instance, my first variable is actually sex. I have just coded the males as zeros and females as one. This is because SPSS can only analyze numerical data, so we convert them all to numbers that is called coding. My second variable is anxiety scores with higher indicating high levels of anxiety. However, the variable names as shown on this screen, is very zeros, zeros, zeros 0,100,000.0 to, let's fix this. To do this, we would click on the tab that says Variable View. This is what variable view looks like. The data is no longer shown. Instead, the variable information is shown. Now at this screen, there's no way to tell how many data points you have, only how many variables you have. There is one row per variable and the variable view, we can simply click in any of the boxes to modify its contents. And many of your assignments in this course, you will be told what to name your variables. To change your name, go to the column with the heading name, and click on whichever variable you want to rename. You cannot have spaces in your names. So for this example, we will want to rename variable one is sex and variable to as anxiety. Finally, for now, we will want to change the scale of measurement for each variable. We do this by going into the column with the heading measure. You can then drop down to select nominal, ordinal or scale. Remember scale is interval or ratio data. You can then go to the top and click on the tab that says File and then Save to save your data file. You will be selecting a variety of these tabs throughout the course. Most often analyze to select a specific statistical analysis or graphs to create a graph, the tab help is a great resource if you get stuck or have a question. To show what output looks like, I'm going to go ahead and select the tab, Analyze Descriptive Statistics, then explore. Now I'm going to click on anxiety. It is highlighted. And then I will click the arrow to move it to where it says Dependent List. Next, I would click on sex, and when it is selected, I will click the arrow to move it to the factor list. Now I will select, Okay, this is a point and click method we will be using in class. You simply point to what you want and click to have SPSS from the analysis. Our output file will then come up on our screen. And the left-hand panel, we can select anything in our view, will jump to that location to demonstrate how to copy and paste a graph into Word. I'm going to select where it says boxplot. You will find copy and paste feature works similarly on any type of output. In this example, I'm using a PC. I simply right-click on the graph and select Copy. I can then open my homework file, that is a Word document, and right-click to paste it into the document. Depending on what version of a PC you have. This may distort your image or the paste will not fit. You have several options. When you right-click, you can instead select Copy Special, then select image, making sure to unselect all other options in your SPSS output window. This will allow you to more easily resize it once you've pasted it into your Word document. Another option is to paste special when within the Word document to try out the various options to see what looks best fits within your document. You should have similar options for Mac, but Max also allow a screenshot using a keyboard command Shift, Command four. You cannot copy and paste your data file into a Word document. So sometimes you will want to do screenshots. You can use screenshots and PCs and Macs to copy information from both the SPSS data files and the output files, but needing to move them to your homework file. For instance, if asked to show your data view, you would open it so that you can see what you want to transfer. You would also have your homework document that's in Word opened but minimized. You would then follow the directions on this slide for whether you are using a Windows or Mac operating system has shown above. I realized SPSS may seem a bit overwhelming. It is similar to learning a new language. The more time you spent immersed in it, the quicker you will become familiar with it. Your assigned readings, how data you can enter yourself and practice to compare your output to that provided in your readings. I highly encourage you to take the time reviewing those examples before beginning any homework exercises. This concludes the presentation introducing you to SPSS. I encourage you to now go and practice, practice, practice.


PSYC 510

Homework: Variables, Measures, and SPSS Assignment Instructions


This Homework: Variables, Measures & SPSS Assignment is designed to assess your understanding of the concepts and applications covered thus far in PSYC 510: Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology I. This particular module introduces more introductory concepts of research design including types of measures commonly used in the field, variables, scale of measurement, and whether variables are discrete or continuous. Definitions, applications, and importance of reliability and validity are covered, and we are introduced to the most commonly used statistical software in our field – SPSS.


Be sure you have reviewed this module’s Learn section before completing this Homework: Variables, Measures & SPSS Assignment. This Homework: Variables, Measures & SPSS Assignment is worth 60 points. Each question is worth 3 points except questions #1 – 3, which are worth 4 pts. Six points are awarded for overall mechanics/structure.

· Part I contains general concepts from this module’s Learn section.

· Part II requires use of SPSS. You will have to take “snips”, screen shots and/or copy and paste from your SPSS to place answers within this file. Make sure you only insert relevant and legible images. Failure to do so may affect the mechanics / structure points for this assignment.

· Part III is the cumulative section. These may include short answer and/or use of SPSS but will review material from previous module(s).

· Directions for each subsection are provided in the top of each table (in the gray shaded areas). Answers should be placed where indicated (wherever there is “ ANSWER”).

· Submit the file as a WORD document (.doc or .docx). Make sure the filename of your submission includes your full name, course and section.

· Example: HW2_JohnDoe_510B01

Make sure to check the Homework Grading Rubric before you begin this Homework: Variables, Measures & SPSS Assignment.

Part I: General Concepts

These questions are based on the concepts covered in this module’s assigned readings and presentations.

Use complete sentences to answer the following questions. 4 pts each = 12 pts


Identify and describe a type of reliability that measures participant reliability. Why is it useful?



How is reliability measured? What is the potential range of values? According to your required readings, what is an acceptable range to establish reliability (include negative or positive sign(s)?



Choose one of the types of validity used by researchers to evaluate the truthfulness / genuineness of a measure. Identify the name of the validity, briefly define it, and state why it is useful.


As discussed this week, a variable must be operationally defined in a particular study to clarify what the researcher will use to measure or manipulate the variable of interest. To answer the following questions, think of how a researcher may examine “happiness”.


Provide an operational definition of this variable (i.e. briefly describe in detail how a researcher may measure this variable) using a “ behavioral” measure.



Based on your answer in the previous question, identify and justify the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, or “scale”, which includes both interval or ratio) based on your definition.



Provide an operational definition of this variable (i.e. briefly describe in detail how a researcher may measure this variable) using a “ self-report” measure.



Based on your answer in the previous question, identify and justify the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, or “scale”, which includes both interval or ratio) based on your definition.


Many files will be used in this course, and being able to identify the extension will greatly help you in determining what the file is used for and which program you should use to open the file. Match the following files with the expected program based on the information provided.

A. SPSS Data File B. SPSS Output File C. Word Document










Part II: SPSS Application

These questions require the use of SPSS. Remember you must submit all of your work within this word document. You will need to take a screen shot of your data view if necessary, or copy and paste your output into the spaces below.

Create a data file and enter the following two variables. Name the variables exactly as shown and make sure to enter the value labels for the variable “Type”. (Note there are 6 rows of data).

Value labels for the Variable “Type” are:

0 = Staff; 1 = Faculty; 2 = Administration.
















Paste an image (e.g., “snip”) of your DATA VIEW in the space below. (Only the two columns with column titles and the 6 rows of data need to be shown).

ANSWER: Paste Data View HERE:


Paste an image (e.g., “snip”) of your VARIABLE VIEW in the space below. It must include all of the columns from “Name” to “Measure” (Role is optional).

ANSWER: Paste Variable View HERE:


As shown in this module’s presentation and described below, run descriptive statistics:

Analyze Descriptive Statistics Explore

Salary Dependent List

Type Factor List

Select “OK”

Once the output is shown, select the “Boxplot” to copy and paste in the box provided.

ANSWER: Paste Data View Screen-shot HERE:

Part III: Cumulative

These questions can be related to anything covered thus far in the course.

Design a descriptive study to measure political party affiliation to answer the following questions.


How would you operationally define political party affiliation? Be very specific and detailed in the answer options and/or how the data would be collected.



For the variable you listed above, identify its scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, or scale). Justify your answer.



What type of descriptive research method (observational, case study, or survey) would be best based on your operational definition? Provide your rationale.



How could you assess the predictive validity of your measure?


Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module 2. Remember to name file appropriately.


Page 5 of 5


PSYC 510

Variables, Measures, & SPSS Practice Worksheet – Scale of Measurement

Review of Material: Scale of measurement – nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio/scale (Module 2)

Information from: Video “Measurements” and Ch. 3 Jackson “Scales (Levels) of Measurement”

Additional practice: Jackson ch. 3 Critical thinking check 3.1 Q2; MC self-test Q1 – 4 (answers in e-book for self-check)

Note: this is an OPTIONAL worksheet to practice applying some of this module’s key concepts. Please make sure you complete all assigned readings and watch this module’s presentations before attempting the worksheet! Try to complete it on your own, then check your answers with the answer key details (at the end of the document).

Practice 1 – Basic Concepts

Classify each operational variable below as nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio (or scale).

a. Degree of pupil dilation in a person’s eyes in a study of romantic couples (measured in millimeters)

b. Number of books a person owns.

c. A book’s sales rank on

d. The language a person primarily speaks at home.

e. Nationality of the participants in a cross-cultural study of Canadian, Ghanaian, and French students.

f. A student’s letter grade in school.

g. Narcissism as operationally defined using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI – Raskin & Terry, 1988). This 40 question survey counts the number of statements selected associated with narcissism and provides a single score ranging from 0 – 40, with a higher score indicating greater levels of narcissism.

h. The question “If you were given the chance, would you reapply to your current job?” Options: Yes or No

i. The question “Do you have fun at work?” using a sliding scale akin to Likert. People are shown all numbers 1 – 10 like in Likert, but instead of having to select a solid value, the participant can “slide” a bar anywhere on that range.

Practice 2 – Application

Now that you can identify the scale of measurement, let’s practice doing this from a scenario. For each scenario, identify the independent and dependent variables, and the scale of measurement for each.

2-1. Does the level of seniority of a CEO affect a firm’s performance? CEO level of seniority was categorized as New (0-1 years at the firm); Moderate (2 – 7 years at the firm), and Advanced (8+ years at the firm). The firm’s performance was defined as the simple count of the number of acquisitions in the last year.

2-2. This study examines whether there is a difference between CEO narcissism in male and female CEOs. Narcissism was operationally defined as the CEO’s use of first-person singular pronouns in interviews (determined by counting the number of first-person singular pronouns divided by the sum of those pronouns plus all first- person plural pronouns for a percent ranging from 0 – 100%).

ANSWER KEY for Scale of Measurement

Practice 1 – Basic Concepts

Classify each operational variable below as nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio (or scale). Answers are in red. Remember, NOMINAL implies there are categories. ORDINAL requires magnitude. INTERVAL requires equidistant spacing between levels of magnitude, and RATIO requires an absolute zero. These are ordered from least to most powerful. You go with the scale of measurement that is the most powerful with all criteria met when labelling a variable’s scale of measurement. Remember, for the purposes of this class (and primarily in the social sciences), Likert-based questions will always be considered interval (or SCALE). “SCALE” encompasses both interval and ratio measurement types, as when it comes to statistical tests, we don&#x2019

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