Chat with us, powered by LiveChat When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used: Question 1 options: N | EssayAbode

When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used: Question 1 options: N

When researching cognitive psychology, which of the following are used:

Question 1 options:

Normal brains

Abnormal brains

Computers

All of the above

Question 2 (2 points)

Saved

Wundt’s Leipzig school believed consciousness to be the result of what type of processing?

Question 2 options:

Top-down

Bottom-up

Circular

Conceptually-driven

Question 3 (2 points)

Saved

Early behaviorists emphasized the importance of

Question 3 options:

Consciousness

Thinking

Objectivity

Physics

Question 4 (2 points)

The information about a match or mismatch between a desired end and an existing state is called

Question 4 options:

Goal-directed achievement

Matching hypothesis

Cognitive titration

Feedback

Question 5 (2 points)

Saved

Turing believed that

Question 5 options:

Computers could think

Computers were smarter than humans

Computers were tools that input, stored, and manipulated information

Computers should technically be considered unintelligent

Question 6 (2 points)

Saved

What is NOT an assumption commonly made by the cognitive approach to psychology?

Question 6 options:

Answers to basic empirical questions can be given in terms of information processing models

Cognitive capacities can be regarded as relatively isolated

Cognition can only be understood with reference to stimuli and response

Cognitive psychology tends to focus on the individual rather than on cultural or societal factors.

Question 7 (2 points)

You are at a holiday party with many family and friends. Even though there are many conversations, and it is noisy all around you, you are able to focus on the discussion with your interlocutor. This is due to the

Question 7 options:

Face-name mnemonic

Auditory reflex

Cocktail party effect

Cochlear cilia

Question 8 (2 points)

Studies wherein subjects listen to different stimuli in each ear in order to determine how well one could attend to and remember the stimuli in each ear is called ________.

Question 8 options:

Echoic memory

Broadbent task

Parallel processing

Dichotic listening

Question 9 (2 points)

_____ occurs in time, whereas _____ occurs in space

Question 9 options:

Audition; Vision

Vision; Audition

Cognition; Perception

Perception; Cognition

Question 10 (2 points)

Perceiving something without being aware of it can be tested using ______; perceiving something without attending to it can be tested using _____.

Question 10 options:

Masking research; dichotic listening research

Dichotic listening research; masking research

Semantic research; episodic research

Episodic research; semantic research

Question 11 (2 points)

A patient only eats food from the right half of a plate. What can you infer from this?

Question 11 options:

There has been damage to the frontal lobe of the brain

There has been damage to the occipital lobe of the brain

There has been damage to the left lobe of the brain

There has been damage to the right lobe of the brain

Question 12 (2 points)

Deutsch and Deutsch (1963) claim that:

Question 12 options:

Messages receive greater amounts of processing if they are attended to

All messages receive the same amount of processing whether they are attended to or not

Attended information must receive at least sufficient processing to activate relevant semantic memories

Only one message can be attended to at a time

Question 13 (2 points)

People analyze information from their senses using

Question 13 options:

Perception

Stimuli

Attention

Sensation

Question 14 (2 points)

When you see an X on a piece of paper, you perceive this as two strait lines crossing in the middle. This is what Gestalt psychologists call

Question 14 options:

Law of impressions

Law of proximity

Law of good continuation

Law of closure

Question 15 (2 points)

When we say that an apple can be eaten, a bowl can hold things, and a box can contain things, this is what is referred to as

Question 15 options:

Characteristics

Affordances

Resonances

Primitives

Question 16 (2 points)

The ventral stream in visual processing . . .

Question 16 options:

Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in pattern discrimination and object recognition

Projects to regions of the brain that appear to be involved in the analysis of information involved in the position and movement of objects

Projects to parts of the brain primarily involved in face recognition

Projects to parts of the brain involved in line and edge detection

Question 17 (2 points)

The constructivist approach describes perception as

Question 17 options:

Top-down

Bottom-up

Data-driven

Detail-oriented

Question 18 (2 points)

Which of the following makes within-category distinctions?

Question 18 options:

Objects

Faces

Emotions

Templates

Question 19 (2 points)

People are ______ capable of identifying familiar than unfamiliar faces when there is a change in pose or hairstyle.

Question 19 options:

Equally

More

Less

Research has been inconclusive

Question 20 (2 points)

What type of errors were most commonly made in Young et al’s (1985) study of everyday errors in face recognition?

Question 20 options:

Difficulty retrieving full details of a person

Person unrecognized

Decision problems

Person misidentification

Question 21 (2 points)

Research indicates that person _____ information is retrieved before person ______ information.

Question 21 options:

Identity; name

Name; identity

Sequential; parallel

Parallel; sequential

Question 22 (2 points)

Identifying a person, and identifying an emotional expression, use what kind of routes?

Question 22 options:

Dorsal routes

Ventral routes

Separate routes

Overlapping routes

Question 23 (2 points)

Recognizing someone without being aware of recognizing them is called

Question 23 options:

Covert recognition

Autonomic recognition

Unconscious recognition

Repressed recognition

Question 24 (2 points)

Perceptually-oriented processing is more likely with ____, whereas semantic processing is more likely with _____.

Question 24 options:

Faces; objects

Objects; faces

Words; sentences

Sentences; words

Question 25 (2 points)

Let’s say that you learn about many types of bias in your Cognitive Psychology class. One bias in particular, the hindsight bias, really resonates with you because you recognize it in yourself. You find that, when tested on all of the biases, you remember more about the hindsight bias than the other types of bias. This is due to the

Question 25 options:

Ego involvement effect

Self-bias effect

Own-bias effect

Self-reference effect

Question 26 (2 points)

Studies of HM revealed the importance of the hippocampus in . . .

Question 26 options:

Forming new memories

Remembering old memories

Personality development

Balance

Question 27 (2 points)

Which of the following is considered to be part of declarative memory?

Question 27 options:

Priming

Facts

Classical conditioning

Procedural abilities

Question 28 (2 points)

When any memory is initially formed, it must first be encoded in

Question 28 options:

Emotional memory

Procedural memory

Episodic memory

Semantic memory

Question 29 (2 points)

Which two theories of memory are based on the importance of the relationship between encoding and retrieval?

Question 29 options:

Transfer appropriate processing and encoding specificity

Threshold process and relative distinctiveness

Dual process and familiarity-based theory

Single process signal detection theory and dual process signal detection theory

Question 30 (2 points)

When unconscious memory, or memory without awareness, is being examined, what types of tests are used?

Question 30 options:

Intentional memory tests

Exceptional memory tests

Explicit memory tests

Implicit memory tests

Question 31 (2 points)

We process and manipulate information in what type of memory?

Question 31 options:

Long term memory

Episodic memory

Working memory

Procedural memory

Question 32 (2 points)

Which of the following are synonymous?

Question 32 options:

Short term memory and working memory

Short term memory and long-term memory

Working memory and long-term memory

None of the above

Question 33 (2 points)

Think about your childhood bedroom. Picture where the bed, the windows, and the furniture were.  For this task, you are primarily using your

Question 33 options:

Phonological loop

Visuo-spatial sketchpad

Central executive

Occipital lobe

Question 34 (2 points)

[The] _____ tends to develop earlier in life than [the] ______.

Question 34 options:

Visuo-spatial sketchpad; phonological loop

Phonological loop; visuo-spatial sketchpad

Episodic memory; semantic memory

Semantic memory; episodic memory

Question 35 (2 points)

When you are intending to drive to a friend’s house, but end up at the grocery store instead because you were distracted by weather conditions, this is due to a failure of [the]

Question 35 options:

Working memory

Procedural memory

Supervisory Attentional System

Central workspace

Question 36 (2 points)

Which of the following memorization tasks is most predictive of being able to learn foreign language vocabulary?

Question 36 options:

Word-word pairs (two real words paired together)

Word-nonword pairs (a real word paired with a nonword)

Both are equally predictive

Neither are predictive since different processes are used

Question 37 (2 points)

If you wanted to figure out what steps a person goes through when solving a problem, or what the person’s thought process was, you would employ

Question 37 options:

Protocol analysis

Verbal analysis

Cognitive analysis

Freudian analysis

Question 38 (2 points)

If you think that a hammer can only be used to pound nails, and cannot conceive of other ways it can be used, you are illustrating the concept of

Question 38 options:

Insight

Internal representation

External representation

Functional fixity

Question 39 (2 points)

When using analogies to solve problems without any additional hints or clues, subjects do better when there are

Question 39 options:

Surface similarities

Structural similarities

Blatant similarities

Verbal similarities

Question 40 (2 points)

When solving a problem, experts in a subject matter, as compared to novices, tend to

Question 40 options:

Work backward, beginning with the end goal and working backward to the information given

Work forward, beginning with the information given and using that to work toward the end goal

Work backward and forward simultaneously to discover a solution

Use the method of insight

Question 41 (2 points)

_____ theories of decision-making define the ideal decision whereas _____ theories of decision-making characterize how decisions are actually made.

Question 41 options:

Normative; descriptive

Descriptive; normative

Problem-solving; judgment

Judgment; problem-solving

Question 42 (2 points)

People may experience loss aversion in part due to the

Question 42 options:

Gambling effect

Possession effect

Probability effect

Endowment effect

Question 43 (2 points)

In making judgments, once a hypothesis is formed based on early information, later conflicting information tends to be disregarded. This is called the

Question 43 options:

Disconfirmation effect

Inertia effect

Conservatism effect

Edwards effect

Question 44 (2 points)

Linda is afraid to fly because she hears about planes going down “all the time.” Linda is suffering from the

Question 44 options:

Representativeness heuristic

Availability heuristic

Anchoring and adjustment heuristic

Framing heuristic

Question 45 (2 points)

Bill is at a conference for accountants at a luxury resort in Las Vegas. The hotel is full of accountants, but there are other guests vacationing there too. Bill rides the elevator with a muscular man in workout clothes. He comments, “You aren’t here for the accountant’s conference, are you?!” The man replies, “Yes I am. I am just going for a workout after my last seminar.”  What fallacy did Bill fall prey to?

Question 45 options:

Representativeness heuristic

Availability heuristic

Anchoring and adjustment heuristic

Framing heuristic

Question 46 (2 points)

What type of reasoning do we use when we come to a conclusion based on things we assume, or things we believe?

Question 46 options:

Parallel reasoning

Logical reasoning

Deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Question 47 (2 points)

Is the following syllogism true or false–

All A are B

All B are C

Therefore, All C are A

Question 47 options:

True

False

Impossible to determine

Question 48 (2 points)

What is the most common form of reasoning?

Question 48 options:

Parallel reasoning

Logical reasoning

Deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

Question 49 (2 points)

A professional baseball pitcher wears his “lucky socks” for every game, believing them to be a factor in his success. This illustrates a(n)

Question 49 options:

Illusory correlation

Transitory correlation

Psychological correlation

Low IQ

Question 50 (2 points)

An “a-ha” moment, or gaining sudden insight into a problem, is a form of

Question 50 options:

Parallel reasoning

Logical reasoning

Deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning

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