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HUMAN MICROBIAL DISEASE -Define Pathogen – Define Infectious disease – Define Infection – Define Primary

HUMAN MICROBIAL DISEASE

-Define Pathogen

– Define Infectious disease

– Define Infection

– Define Primary Infection

– Define Secondary Infection

– Define Opportunistic Infection

– Define Accidental Infection

– Define Pathogenicity

– Define Virulence

– Define Virulence Factors

– Define Lethal dose

– Outline the 4 steps a pathogen must complete to cause an infectious disease

– What is the difference between direct and indirect transmission? Provide examples

– What is a common vehicle transmission? Provide examples

– What is the criteria for Airborne transmission? Provide examples

– What are 3 criteria about skin that makes it an effective barrier against microbes?

– What are 3 criteria about mucous membranes that makes it an effective barrier against

microbes?

– List one example of how a pathogen might penetrate a skin or mucous membrane barrier

– Define Exotoxin and list at least 4 features they have

– Define Endotoxin and list at least 4 features they have

– List an example of a waterborne transmission disease

List an example of a airborne transmission disease

– List an example of a contact transmission disease

– List an example of a vector transmission disease

– Influenza virus has an envelope that contains 2 types of protein spikes. Name and

describe them

– Why are spike antigens good at evolving?

– Name 3 characteristics about latent and slow (persistent) Viral Infections

– How are viruses able to bring about cancer cell division?

– Describe the difference between Viruses and Retroviruses in regards to cancer

development

– What is a vaccination?

– Define Attenuated Vaccines

– Define Inactivated Vaccines

– Define Subunit Vaccines

– Define DNA Vaccines

– Define Cutaneous Mycoses and its effect in humans

THE CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS

– Define Sterilization

– Define Bactericidal

– Define Bacteriostatic

– Describe sterilization by heat

– Describe sterilization by irradiation

– Describe sterilization by filtration

– What is disinfection?

– List and describe 3 types of disinfectants

– Describe the Kinetics of Cell death

– Draw and describe the kinetics of cell death for any microorganisms.

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

– Define Antibiotic

– What is a key component of antibiotics?

– Define Infection

– Name 5 antibiotics and the diseases they are typically used for

– Name and describe 6 properties that antibiotics should have

– What are 4 ways that antibiotics work?

– Describe and give an example of disruption of cell membranes as it relates to antibiotics

– Describe and give an example of inhibition of protein synthesis as it relates to antibiotics

– Describe and give an example of inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis as it relates to

antibiotics

– Summarize in 5 sentences resistance to antibiotics

– Provide 5 examples and describe 5 different ways bacteria can be resistant to antibiotics

– Summarize in 5 sentences how bacteria resistance arises

– Describe the pros and cons between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotics in 3

sentences

– Define an Antiviral

– Why are antiviral drugs not as common as antibacterial drugs?

– List and provide a example of the 4 ways antivirals work

– Describe how Antifungals work

– List and describe 5 examples of Antifungal agents

– Why is it hard to target Antiprotozoal Agents?

– List and describe examples of Antiprotozoal Agents (At least 3)

– Give a 3 sentence summary on the future of Antimicrobials (in your own words)

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