Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Familiarize yourself with the topics in Chapters 5 and 6. Pick a topic. Research and organize. Write your research paper. The work must be written in Times New Roman 12. Minimum one p | EssayAbode

Familiarize yourself with the topics in Chapters 5 and 6. Pick a topic. Research and organize. Write your research paper. The work must be written in Times New Roman 12. Minimum one p

Familiarize yourself with the topics in Chapters 5 and 6.

Pick a topic.

Research and organize.

Write your research paper.

The work must be written in Times New Roman 12. Minimum one page. Be creative. Use your opinions, life experiences to talk about the topic.

Discovering the Life Span

Fifth Edition

Chapter 5

Middle Childhood

Module 5.3

Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

5-1

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1

Sections in Module 5.3

The Developing Self

Relationships: Building Friendship in Middle Childhood

Family Life in Middle Childhood

5-2

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2

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

5.13: Summarize how children’s view of themselves changes in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

5.14: Identify the six stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and compare and contrast them with Gilligan’s sequence of stages.

5.15: Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

5-3

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3

Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

5.16: Explain how gender and race affect friendships at this age.

5.17: Identify the variety of family constellations, and assess their impact on children.

5.18: Describe the challenges to family life posed by work, divorce, and poverty.

5-4

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4

The Developing Self

Module 5.3 Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

5-5

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5

A Different Mirror: The Changing Ways Children View Themselves (1 of 5)

LO 5.13 Summarize how children’s view of themselves change in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood: Industry versus Inferiority

From 6 to 12 years of age

Characterized by focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting challenges

Sense of industry in middle childhood is highly correlated with future success

5-6

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Erik Erikson: Middle childhood encompasses the industry-versus-inferiority stage

6

A Different Mirror: The Changing Ways Children View Themselves (2 of 5)

LO 5.13 Summarize how children’s view of themselves change in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

Understanding One’s Self: A New Response to “Who Am I?”

During middle childhood, children begin to see themselves more in terms of psychological traits

They realize they are good at some things and not at others

Self-concept becomes divided into personal and academic spheres

5-7

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7

A Different Mirror: The Changing Ways Children View Themselves (3 of 5)

LO 5.13 Summarize how children’s view of themselves change in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive–or Negative –View of Oneself

Develops in important ways during middle childhood

Children compare themselves to others

Children develop own standards

5-8

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Self-esteem: Individual’s overall and specific positive or negative self-evaluation

8

A Different Mirror: The Changing Ways Children View Themselves (4 of 5)

LO 5.13 Summarize how children’s view of themselves change in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive–or Negative –View of Oneself (cont.)

Change and Stability in Self-esteem

Most children’s self-esteem increases during middle childhood

Children with low self-esteem may become enmeshed in a cycle of failure

Parents can break cycle by promoting self-esteem using authoritative childrearing style

5-9

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9

A Different Mirror: The Changing Ways Children View Themselves (5 of 5)

LO 5.13 Summarize how children’s view of themselves change in middle childhood, and explain how this shift affects their self-esteem.

Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive–or Negative –View of Oneself (cont.)

Race and Self-esteem

Minorities have lower self-esteem due to prejudice and discrimination

Self-esteem of Hispanics and African Americans increases by end of middle childhood

Asian children show a decrease during this time

According to social identity theory, if minority groups do not accept the majority group’s views of their group, their self-esteem will not suffer

5-10

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10

Cultural Dimensions: Are Children of Immigrant Families Well Adjusted? (1 of 2)

Immigration has risen over the last 30 years

25 percent of U.S. children are from immigrant families

Fastest-growing segment of population

Children in immigrant families do well

Some have high socioeconomic status and well-educated families

Often highly motivated to succeed

Often come from collectivist societies and view duty to succeed

5-11

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11

Cultural Dimensions: Are Children of Immigrant Families Well Adjusted? (2 of 2)

Children in immigrant families have challenges

Lack good health insurance and have lower-paying jobs

Parental English proficiency is low

Higher rates of obesity in adolescents

5-12

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12

Moral Development (1 of 4)

LO 5.14 Identify the six stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and compare and contrast them with Gilligan’s sequence of stages.

Lawrence Kohlberg suggests a series of stages in development of moral reasoning:

Preconventional morality (Stages 1 and 2)

Conventional Morality (Stages 3 and 4)

Postconventional morality (Stages 5 and 6)

5-13

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Preconventional morality (Stages 1 and 2): People follow rules, attentive to rewards and punishments

Conventional Morality (Stages 3 and 4): People approach problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society

Postconventional morality (Stages 5 and 6): Universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than a particular society

13

Moral Development (2 of 4)

LO 5.14 Identify the six stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and compare and contrast them with Gilligan’s sequence of stages.

Kohlberg proposes that people move through stages in a fixed order

Unable to reach highest stage until adolescence (limits in cognition)

Not everyone is presumed to reach highest stage

Postconventional reasoning relatively rare

5-14

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14

Moral Development (3 of 4)

LO 5.14 Identify the six stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and compare and contrast them with Gilligan’s sequence of stages.

Assessments of Kohlberg’s theory

Good account of moral judgment but not adequate at predicting behavior

Theory does not generalize to non-Western cultures

Turiel believes Kohlberg did not distinguish between social conventional reasoning and other reasoning

Turiel proposes moral domain theory—children distinguish between social norms and morality

Critics state that Kohlberg’s data based on males and does not adequately describe female moral behavior

5-15

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15

Moral Development (4 of 4)

LO 5.14 Identify the six stages in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and compare and contrast them with Gilligan’s sequence of stages.

Carol Gilligan suggests socialization of boys and girls leads to differences in moral reasoning

Gilligan proposes three stages:

Orientation toward individual survival

Goodness as self-sacrifice

Morality of nonviolence

Not all research finds males and females differ in moral reasoning

5-16

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Boys view morality as justice and fairness

Girls see morality as responsibility and compassion toward individuals and willingness to sacrifice for relationships

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Table 5-2: Gilligan’s Three Stages of Moral Development in Women

Source: Gilligan, 1982.

5-17

Stage Characteristics Example
STAGE 1
Orientation toward individual survival Initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self. Gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others. A first grader may insist on playing only games of her own choosing when playing with a friend.
STAGE 2
Goodness as self-sacrifice Initial view is that a woman must sacrifice her own wishes to what other people want. Gradual transition from “goodness” to “truth,” which takes into account needs of both self and others. Now older, the same girl may believe that to be a good friend, she must play the games her friend chooses, even if she herself doesn’t like them.
STAGE 3
Morality of nonviolence A moral equivalence is established between self and others. Hurting anyone—including one’s self—is seen as immoral. Most sophisticated form of reasoning, according to Gilligan. The same girl may realize that both friends must enjoy their time together and look for activities that both she and her friend can enjoy.

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Source: Gilligan, 1982.

17

Review: The Developing Self (1 of 2)

According to Erikson, middle childhood is the industry–versus–inferiority stage.

Children use social comparison and self-concepts that are more psychological than physiological in nature.

Children develop internal standards for success and work to achieve them.

5-18

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18

Review: The Developing Self (2 of 2)

Kohlberg suggests moral development occurs in three stages that range from being concerned with rewards and punishments to a sense of universal moral principles.

Gilligan proposes girls progress morally focused on responsibility toward individuals and compassion.

5-19

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19

Check Yourself: The Developing Self (1 of 2)

As children develop a better self-understanding in middle childhood, they begin to view themselves less in terms of physical attributes and more in terms of their __________.

A) familial relationships

B) psychological traits

C) environmental characteristics

D) motor skills

5-20

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Answer: B

20

Check Yourself: The Developing Self (2 of 2)

According to __________, people pass through a series of six stages as their sense of justice and their level of reasoning evolves with age and cognitive development.

A) Freud

B) Piaget

C) Kohlberg

D) Skinner

5-21

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Answer: C

21

Relationships: Building Friendship in Middle Childhood

Module 5.3 Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

5-22

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22

Relationships: Building Friendships in Middle Childhood

Friendships influence children’s development:

Provide information about the world and other people

Provide emotional support and help children handle stress

Teach children how to manage and control their emotions

Teach about communication with others

Foster intellectual growth

Allow children to practice relationship skills

However, friends’ influence does not become greater than the influence of parents and other family members

5-23

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23

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (1 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Damon proposes a child’s concept of friendship passes through three stages

Stage 1: Basing Friendship on Others’ Behavior

Ages 4 to 7

Children see friends as like themselves

Children see friends as people to share toys and activities with

Children do not take into account personal traits

5-24

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24

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (2 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Stage 2: Basing Friendship on Trust

Ages 8 to 10

Children begin to take others’ personal qualities and traits into consideration

Friends viewed in terms of rewards they provide

Friendships are based on mutual trust

5-25

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25

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (3 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Stage 3: Basing Friendship on Psychological Closeness

Ages 11 to 15

Friendships become based on intimacy and loyalty

Friendships involve psychological closeness, mutual disclosure, and exclusivity

5-26

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26

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (4 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular?

Status Among School-age Children: Establishing One’s Position

Friendships show clear hierarchies in terms of status

High-status children have greater access to resources such as games, toys, books, and information

Lower-status children tend to follow lead of higher-status children

High-status children form friendships with high-status children; low-status children likely to befriend children of lower status

High-status form cliques and play with more children than low-status children play with

Lower-status children play with younger kids or less-popular kids

Popularity is a reflection of status

5-27

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27

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (5 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular? (cont.)

What Personal Characteristics Lead to Popularity?

Social Competence

Helpful and cooperative

Good sense of humor

Good emotional understanding

Adapt well to social situations

5-28

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Social Competence: Skills that lead to success in social settings

28

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (6 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular? (cont.)

Social Problem-Solving Abilities

Dodge argues problem-solving proceeds through steps related to information-processing ability

Find and identify relevant social cues

Interpret and evaluate the social cues

Determine possible problem-solving responses

Evaluate responses and their possible consequences

Choose a response

5-29

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Social problem-solving: Use of strategies to solve conflicts in mutually satisfying ways

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Figure 5-10: Problem-Solving Steps

Children’s problem-solving proceeds through several steps involving different information-processing strategies. Source: Based on Dodge, 1985.

5-30

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Source: Based on Dodge, 1985.

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States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (7 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Individual Differences in Friendship: What Makes a Child Popular? (cont.)

Teaching Social Competence

Knowing Dodge’s steps allows adults to intervene and build on child’s weaknesses

Several programs exist to teach social skills

5-31

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31

Development in Your Life: Increasing Children’s Social Competence

Ideas for increasing social competence:

Encourage social interaction.

Teach listening skills to children.

Make children aware that people display emotions and moods nonverbally.

Teach conversational skills, including the importance of asking questions and self-disclosure.

Don’t ask children to choose teams or groups publicly.

5-32

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32

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (8 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Bullying: Schoolyard and Online Victimization

National Association of School Psychologists estimate 160,000 children stay home every day for fear of being bullied

Others encounter bullying on the Internet, which can be more public and anonymous

5-33

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33

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (9 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Bullying: Schoolyard and Online Victimization (cont.)

Victims of bullies share characteristics:

Loners

Cry easily

Lack social skills

90 percent of middle-school students report being bullied at some point in school

5-34

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34

States of Friendship: Changing Views of Friends (10 of 10)

LO 5.15 Identify Damon’s stages of friendship, and explain the factors that determine popularity in middle childhood.

Bullying: Schoolyard and Online Victimization

About 15 percent of students are bullies

Half come from abusive homes

Prefer violent television

Misbehave more

When caught, they lie and show little remorse

More likely to break law as adults

Training and enlisting students to intervene when they see bullying is helpful

5-35

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35

Gender, Race, and Friendships (1 of 3)

LO 5.16 Explain how gender and race affect friendships at this age

Gender and Friendships: The Sex Segregation of Middle Childhood

Friendships are sex-segregated

Seen in nearly all societies

Boys

Larger networks of friends

Form a dominance hierarchy

Restrictive play allows interactions to be interrupted when status is challenged

5-36

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36

Gender, Race, and Friendships (2 of 3)

LO 5.16 Explain how gender and race affect friendships at this age

Gender and Friendships: The Sex Segregation of Middle Childhood (cont.)

Girls

Focus on 1 or 2 “best friends” of equal status

Conflicts solved by compromise, ignoring the situation, or giving in

Girls are confrontational with boys or girls who are not their friends

Girls’ language is less confrontational

5-37

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37

Gender, Race, and Friendships (3 of 3)

LO 5.16 Explain how gender and race affect friendships at this age

Cross-race Friendships: Integration In and Out of the Classroom

Children make friends with children from the same race

Whites and African Americans show a high degree of mutual acceptance

Increased contact between majority and minority group members can reduce prejudice and discrimination

5-38