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Compare your response with your colleagues. Identify any insights you gained from your peers response. Explain whether or how to address values related to the development and use of

 

Respond to at least two colleagues:

  • Compare your response with your colleague’s. Identify any insights you gained from your peer’s response.
  • Explain whether or how to address values related to the development and use of other theories in general when working with clients.

Summarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory in 2–3 sentences.

Freud's psychoanalytical theory is based on various assumptions, including that the human mind has a limited capacity of energy that should be accounted for. Another assumption includes that the mind is a structure that is sectioned into three parts, namely the ego, id, and superego, with each section having its motivation (Burgin et al., 2022). It is further assumed that unconscious thoughts exist, and only one conscious effort is required to bring these concepts forward or conceal them, thus responsible for the experiences and behaviors. The last assumption includes that sexual experiences and childhood experiences widely contribute to their development.

Explain whether you believe it is appropriate to apply psychoanalytic theory to women and individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups.

The theory does not apply to women and people from ethnic and racial minority groups because the theory mistakenly affirms that women's consciousness is less established than men's and that women tend to be more passive. Making these allegations is an illustration of overgeneralization. Another reason Freud used a small sample population is that he observed young white boys who were handpicked from a similar socioeconomic class (Tubert-Oklander, 2019). He believed that the unconscious mind does not have any gender, social class, or race, and thus these attributes will not affect the treatment of the client. However, most minority groups suffer from oppression, which cannot go unnoticed as the symptoms of an oppressed individual are different from those of a person who has never experienced stigma. However, the theory should not be completely discarded because it created a foundation that discusses social problems that can help individuals regain their mental health. However, some factors do not apply to every individual across the board.

Explain whether you believe psychoanalytic theory is consistent with social work values and social work ethics.

The theory demonstrates inconsistencies with social work ethics and values. An example is when an author proposes that it would be inappropriate for a therapist to pressurize a female to be less assertive, especially if he believes that women should be more submissive. One value that the Social Work Code of Ethics reflects is the worth and dignity of an individual (Morgan, 2021). For this reason, the social worker should not employ psychoanalytic theory to make women feel less superior to men. The social worker should refrain from conversing with a female client regarding her perception of men. The social worker must demonstrate that they value others irrespective of their differences.

References

Bürgin, D., Staehle, A., Westhoff, K., & von Ballmoos, A. W. (2022). Analytic Listening in Clinical Dialogue: Basic Assumptions. Taylor & Francis.

Morgan, H. (2021). The Work of Whiteness: A Psychoanalytic Perspective. Routledge.

Tubert-Oklander, J. (2019). Beyond psychoanalysis and group analysis. The an urgent need for a new paradigm of the human being. Group Analysis, 52(4), 409-426.

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Summarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory in 2-3 sentences.

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory believes that an individual’s unconscious mind, as well as their childhood experiences, are key to explaining the problems that they are experiencing. Freud believed that there were three parts to the personality, the id, the ego, and the superego. It is stated that mental health occurs when these three parts are balanced (Lumen).

Explain whether you believe it is appropriate to apply psychoanalytic theory to women or individuals from racial or ethnic minority groups.

Freud developed his psychoanalytic theory during the early 1900s (Turner 2007), a time when women and racial/ethnic minority groups were even more discriminated against than they are in today’s society. Freud did believe in women’s sexuality which contradicted the beliefs of his time (Cherry, 2022). However, as stated by his granddaughter, Sophie Freud, he believed women to be lesser than men. He also taught that women experienced penis envy and that young girls would be incredibly upset that they would not have a penis (Cherry, 2022). Freud did not have an adequate understanding of women, and thus, I don’t believe that his theory should be applied to women. This theory was a product of its time, and numerous psychoanalysts have used psychoanalysis in the discrimination of racial/ethnic minorities (Stoute, 2017). Although I don’t believe that this theory should be applied to women or racial/ethnic minority groups, this theory has been developed in many ways since then (Turner, 2007) and can continue to be modernized to be more inclusive.

Explain whether you believe psychoanalytic theory is consistent with social work values and social work ethics.

As discussed above, Freud and other psychoanalysts were not known for inclusivity or social justice. Since social justice is one of the NASW’s core values in the Code of Ethics (2021), this is important to note. Psychoanalysts have stated that social policy must be separated from objectivity in a clinical setting (Turner, 2007). Social workers also have an ethical responsibility to be culturally competent (National Association of Social Workers, 2021), and I don’t believe that the application of this theory allows for that based on its history. I think that, potentially, with a lot of development, modernization, and emphasis on diverse experiences, this theory could align with social work values and ethics. However, as it stands now, I do not believe that it does.

References

Cherry, K. (29 August 2022). Freud’s perspective on women. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/how-sigmund-freud-viewed-women-2795859.

Lumen. (n.d.). The history of psychology: Psychoanalytic theory and gestalt psychology. Introduction to Psychology. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/waymaker-psychology/chapter/reading-freud-and-psychoanalytic-theory/

National Association of Social Workers (2021). Code of ethics of the national association of social workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/

Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English.

Stoute, B. J. (2017). Race and racism in psychoanalytic thought: The ghosts in our nursery. Special Section: Conversations on psychoanalysis and race. https://apsa.org/apsaa-publications/vol51no1-TOC/html/vol51no1_08.xhtml

Turner, K., & Lehning, A. J. (2007). Psychological Theories of Poverty. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 16(1/2), 57–72. https://doi.org/10.1300/J137v16n01_05

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ummarize the assumptions of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory in 2–3 sentences.

According to Freud, a person's development is influenced by the experiences of their early years. He also discovered that much of what people do is driven by their unconsciousness. He also believed that when someone tries to become conscious of their impulses, defensive systems work to create a psychological barrier (Turner, 2017).

Explain whether you believe it is appropriate to apply psychoanalytic theory to women and individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups.

With a focus on racial and cultural diversity, psychoanalytic theory has been applied to a wider range of situations, including clinical and community settings. Women and others from minority ethnic groups can benefit from the psychoanalytic approach. The women and other members of small racial and ethnic groups would need rehabilitation just like any other group. In order to better understand how people behave in this circumstance, psychoanalytic theory must be applied. It can also assist in providing therapists with an emotional understanding of these populations. Using key ideas like enactments, transference, and other human defensive mechanisms, community interventions have extensively applied psychoanalytic theory to minor racial and ethnic minority groups (Psychoanalytic Theory & Approaches | APsaA, 2022). These aid therapists in comprehending the experiences they have when dealing with clients who fall into these categories.

Explain whether you believe psychoanalytic theory is consistent with social work values and social work ethics.

The principles of social work and ethics appear to be consistently supported by psychoanalytic thought. The worth and dignity of an individual are fundamental values outlined in social work and social ethics. Social professionals are urged to foster polite interactions among themselves, keeping in mind the diversity of both cultures and individual variations (Code of Ethics: English, n.d.). The notion aids social workers in effectively relating by assisting them in comprehending people's actions, attitudes, and even interests. As an ethical code, integrity is equally applicable to social workers (Code of Ethics: English, n.d.). The ego of social workers affects their integrity, which aids in establishing order (Eunjung & Fleischer, 2016).

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